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Technical Paper

Study on Improving the Fuel Economy of the Engine on EP Energy-Saving Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1780
“Soichiro Honda Cup, Honda Econo-Power Competition”, is an annual international energy-saving competition which is hosted by Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Till now it has been held 27 sessions. The aims of the EP project are: promoting the development of environmental protection, making full use of limit earth resources, challenging the fuel consumption limitation of vehicle. Tongji University's students' team has participated in the competition for seven consecutive times. In order to minimize the fuel consumption of the EP energy-saving vehicle, this paper focuses on the technical methods of improving the fuel economy of the engine. Firstly, the optimization of the carburetor. Secondly, for the purpose of improving combustion efficiency, researches on dual spark plug and compression ratio are done.
Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Wastegate Diameter on Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Perfor mance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1028
Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
Technical Paper

The Nonlinear Characteristics Impact of Multi-Staged Stiffness Clutch Damper on the Vehicle Creeping

2016-04-05
2016-01-0431
The nonlinear characteristics impact of multi-staged stiffness clutch damper on the vehicle creeping is investigated by using the lumped-parameter modeling method as a certain mass-production passenger sedan is taken as the research subject. Firstly, a quasi-transient engine model of an inline four-cylinder and four-stroke engine, based on measured data of cylinder gas pressure versus crankshaft angle, is derived. Effective output torque is acquired and as the input excitation to the driveline system. Secondly, a 12-DOF (Degree of Freedom) nonlinear and branched powertrain system and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established. The differential mechanism characteristics and dynamic tire property based on the LuGre tire model are considered. Then, for a traditional two-staged stiffness clutch damper in consideration of hysteresis characteristics, vehicle powertrain system responses in both the time and frequency domain are obtained.
Journal Article

Vibro-Impact Analysis of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle and Its Sound Quality Evaluation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0403
Experimental schemes, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and sound quality prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiments, including experiment conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were described in detail. Secondly, through time-frequency analysis, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle noise were identified and vibro-impact of gear rattle occurs in the frequency range of 450~4000Hz on the vehicle idle condition and the creeping condition. Thirdly, based on bandwidth filtering processing of gear rattle noise, subjective assessment experiments by a paired comparison method were carried out.
Journal Article

Influence Mechanism of Electromechanical Parameters on Transient Vibration of Electric Wheel System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0462
Electric wheel systems of in-wheel motor driven vehicles consist of the motor controller, in-wheel motor and tire-suspension assembly. The coupling between the electromagnetic excitation and elastic structure gives rise to electromechanical dynamic issues. As for the structural layout of the electric wheel system, the driving motor is directly connected to the wheel without torsion dampers or transmission in the driveline, thus making the electric wheel structure a weak damping system. Moreover, the driving torque of electric wheel can change rapidly in various conditions of vehicle. As a result, the transient vibration problem becomes one of the key electromechanical dynamic issues in the electric wheel system. To investigate this problem, the electromechanical coupling model of the electric wheel system is established first. Then the transient responses of the electric wheel under abrupt changes of the driving torque are simulated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Jet-Wake and Secondary Flows in a Hydrodynamic Torque Converter

2017-03-28
2017-01-1335
Jet-wake flow and secondary flows are undesirable in torque converters as they are responsible for flow losses and flow nonuniformity; that is, jet-wake flow and secondary flows negatively affect the torque converter performance. Therefore, it is very important to investigate and minimize the undesirable flows to decrease flow losses in torque converter. However, the existing studies are limited to employ geometry design parameter modifications rather than focusing on the actual causes and intrinsic physical mechanism that generate the flows to reduce the flow losses. In this paper, Calculation model of a torque converter is presented first and a three dimensional CFD code was used to simulate the internal flow field of a torque converter. The simulation results coincide with experimental measurements, which verifies the validity of the method. Based on flow field calculation results, the internal flow field of impeller, turbine and stator were analyzed, respectively.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization Employing Genetic Algorithm for the Torque Converter with Dual-Blade Stator

2015-04-14
2015-01-1119
The traditional automotive torque converter (TC) is equipped with a single-blade stator, at the suction side of which there is an apparent boundary layer separation at stalling condition because of its large impending angle. The separation flow behind the suction side of stator blade is found to create large area of low-energy flow which blocks effective flow passage area, produces more energy losses, decreases impeller torque capacity and transmission efficiency. It is found effective to suppress the boundary layer separation by separating the original single-blade stator into a primary and a secondary part. The gap between them guides high-energy flow at the pressurized side of the primary blade to the suction side of the secondary one, which helps to make boundary layer flow stable. As a result, the impeller torque capacity and torque ratio at low-speed ratio increase tremendously at the cost of little drop of maximum efficiency.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Geographically Distributed Vehicle Powertrain System Validation Platform Based on X-in-the-Loop Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-1674
X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. In order to develop and validate an extended validation method based on XiL, Tongji University in Shanghai, China and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Karlsruhe, Germany co- performed a feasibility study about an X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform. The X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform includes a MATLAB/Simulink software platform and geographically distributed equipment (driver simulator, driving electric motor and dynamometer test stand), which are used to conduct bidirectional experiments to test communication of powertrain data between China and Germany.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Dry-clutch Transmissibility Characteristic for Vehicle Launch Shudder

2018-04-03
2018-01-1225
Vehicle launch shudder is the terminology used in automotive industry to describe severe longitudinal oscillation during clutch engagement under start-up condition. This paper presents and implements detailed investigation for dry-clutch engagement and disengagement process, in order to deeply analyze vehicle launch shudder phenomenon which seriously deteriorates ride comfort. Firstly, diaphragm spring and cushion spring and link strip, which are three elastic components related to dry-clutch engagement and disengagement process in axial direction, are studied for their elastic properties, respectively, to obtain relationship between load and deflection. The elastic properties of these three elastic components are taken into considerations to establish nonlinear relationship between release bearing travel and clutch clamp force.
Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Modification of EV Powertrain for Vibration and Noise Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-1289
In order to research the vibration and noise reduction in pure electric vehicle power-train, a comprehensive work is to simulate the power-train incentive of a high-speed pure electric vehicle, and indicates significant impact of gear mesh system on the power-train NVH performance. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the impact of meshing gear system on electric vehicle power-train vibration and noise performance and seek reasonable methods to reduce the vibration and noise. In this paper, a typical pure electric vehicle's powertrain was used to conduct vibration and noise dynamic simulation. Firstly, the power train model was established considering the gear meshing stiffness, transmission errors, bearing factors and shell flexible, then the vibration and sound radiation dynamic response of power-train was simulated. Based on the accuracy of prediction model, a gear tooth modification was carried out for vibration and noise optimization.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of Automotive Aerodynamic Noise Generation and Transmission Considering Equivalent Nonlinear Sealing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0469
Aerodynamic noise transmits through automotive window, causing great adverse influence on comfortability and noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) performance. However, the complicated external turbulent air flow, as well as the internal metal-rubber nonlinear sealing constraint, makes the mechanism of aerodynamic noise generation and transmission very difficult. Regarding the complex exterior aerodynamics-induced load and nonlinear metal-rubber interaction and constraint, an efficient two-step numerical prediction method is presented in order to study the mechanism of its generation and transmission. The first step uses the commercial ANSYS-Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis based on the shear stress transport (SST) - turbulence kinetic energy (k) - the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy ε (epsilon) model and Lighthill’s noise source theory.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification of Self-Inductance in Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0463
For a practical pad design, a magnetic shielding layer is imperative which is made of ferrite, aluminum or some other metallic material. However, once the magnetic shielding layer is added, not only the mutual inductance but also the self-inductance of the coupling coils vary with the lateral misalignment which is inevitable for a human driver. The change of self-inductance will also result in the mistuning problem in the resonant circuit, which can significantly reduce the transmission efficiency of the whole wireless power transfer (WPT) system. This paper proposed a method of parameter identification of self-inductance based on the least square in order to solve the mistuning problem. In order to verify the proposed method, both the simulation model and the experiment set-up are built.
Technical Paper

Subsection Coordinated Control during Mode Transition for a Compound Power-Split System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1214
The power-split transmission is considered as one of the major technologies for hybrid electric vehicles. It utilizes two electric motors/generators (MGs) and a power-split device (planetary gear sets) to make the speed of internal combustion engine (ICE) independent from the vehicle speed, and in that way enables the ICE to operate in a high-efficiency region under all driving cycles. In this study, a compound power-split hybrid system integrated with a two-planetary gear train is proposed. To suppress the vehicle jerk intensity and improve the driving comfort during the transition from EV (Electric Vehicle) mode to HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) mode, a torque coordinated control strategy is derived. Based on the analysis of mode transition in different sections, mathematical models of each section are deduced, respectively. Then a model-based torque coordinated control method is used to solve out the target output torques of ICE, MGs and brakes in each mode transition phase.
Technical Paper

Numeric Study on Torsional Characteristics of Dual Mass Flywheel with Circumferential ARC Spring

2019-04-02
2019-01-0934
The rapid development of automotive technology has promoted the application of higher efficiency engines, while also putting higher requirements on the control of crankshaft torsional vibration. The traditional clutch driven disc torsional vibration damper can no longer meet the current new vibration and noise reduction requirements. Under these circumstances adopting dual mass flywheel (DMF) could be an efficient measure to reduce powertrain torsional fluctuations. For the sake of studying the torsional characteristics of DMF, a dual mass flywheel with circumstance arc spring (DMF-CS) is taken as the research subject. Firstly, According to lumped mass model, a multi-degree of freedom torsional vibration model of DMF-CS is established, which takes the mutual conversion of dry friction and viscous friction into consideration. Then, the overall and partial torsion characteristics of dual mass flywheel are obtained through numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimized Control of Dynamical Engine-Start Process in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0268
Engine start while driving is one of the most typical and frequent work conditions for hybrid vehicles. Engine start has very significant impact on the driving comfort. Engine start, especially a dynamical engine start, have high control requirements regarding control time, torque output and riding comfort. In some hybrid transmissions such as P2, engine is cranked and synchronized through wet clutch slipping. Because clutch pressure control has time-varying delay and estimation precision of engine torque by ECU (Engine Control Unit) is poor, conventional PID controller is unable to meet the high requirements of control quality. A new control algorithm is proposed in this paper to cope with all these challenges. The new control algorithm is based on LADRC (Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller) and is improved through combination with Smith predictor and Adaline network. LADRC is adopted to reduce negative effects of poor precision of engine torque.
Technical Paper

System Evaluation Method for Two Planetary Gears Hybrid Powertrain under Gray Relational Analysis Based on Fuzzy AHP and Entropy Weight Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0430
Millions of configurations of power-split hybrid powertrain can be generated due to variation in number of planetary-gear sets (PG), difference in number, type and installation location of shift actuators (clutches or brakes), and difference in connection positions of power components. Considering the large number of configurations, complex structures and control modes, it is vital to construct an appropriate multi-index system evaluation method, which directly affects the requirement fulfillment, the time and cost of 2-PG system configuration design. Considering one-sidedness (dynamics and economic performance), simplicity (linear combination of indicators) and subjectivity (relying on expert experience) of previous system evaluation method of 2-PG system design, a more systematic evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The proposed evaluation system consists of five aspects, involving dynamic, economy, comfort, reliability and cost, and more than 20 indexes.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a New Range-Extension Hybrid Powertrain Concept

2020-04-14
2020-01-0845
A new range-extension hybrid powertrain concept, namely the Tongji Extended-range Hybrid Technology (TJEHT) was developed and demonstrated in this study. This hybrid system is composed of a direct-injection gasoline engine, a traction motor, an Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG) motor, and a transmission. In addition, an electronically controlled clutch between the ISG motor and engine, and an electronically controlled synchronizer between the ISG motor and transmission are also employed in the transmission case. Hence, this system can provide six basic operating modes including the single-motor driving, dual-motor driving, serial driving, parallel driving, engine-only driving and regeneration mode depending on the engagement status of the clutch and synchronizer. Importantly, the unique dual-motor operation mode can improve vehicle acceleration performance and the overall operating efficiency.
Journal Article

Acoustic Characteristics Prediction and Optimization of Wheel Resonators with Arbitrary Section

2020-04-14
2020-01-0917
Tire cavity noise of pure electric vehicles is particularly prominent due to the absence of engine noise, which are usually eliminated by adding Helmholtz resonators with arbitrary transversal section to the wheel rims. This paper provides theoretical basis for accurately predicting and effectively improving acoustic performance of wheel resonators. A hybrid finite element method is developed to extract the transversal wavenumbers and eigenvectors, and the mode-matching scheme is employed to determine the transmission loss of the Helmholtz resonator. Based on the accuracy validation of this method, the matching design of the wheel resonators and the optimization method of tire cavity noise are studied. The identification method of the tire cavity resonance frequency is developed through the acoustic modal test. A scientific transmission loss target curve and fitness function are defined according to the noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
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