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Journal Article

Design and Thermal Analysis of a Passive Thermal Management System Using Composite Phase Change Material for Rectangular Power Batteries

2015-04-14
2015-01-0254
A passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (PCM) for large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion batteries is designed. A battery module consisting of six Li-ion cells connected in series was investigated as a basic unit. The passive TMS for the module has three configurations according to the contact area between cells and the composite PCM, i.e., surrounding, front-contacted and side-contacted schemes. Firstly, heat generation rate of the battery cell was calculated using the Bernardi equation based on experimentally measured heat source terms (i.e. the internal resistance and the entropy coefficient). Physical and thermal properties such as density, phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the composite PCM were also obtained by experimental methods. Thereafter, thermal response of the battery modules with the three TMS configurations was simulated using 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Radiation and Conjugate Heat Transfers for Vehicle Underbody

2008-06-23
2008-01-1819
A computational study was conducted in order to characterize the heat transfers in a sedan vehicle underbody and the exhaust system. A steady-state analysis with consideration for both the radiation and conjugate heat transfers was undertaken using the High-Reynolds formulation of the k-epsilon turbulence model with standard wall function and the DO model for the radiation heat transfer. All three mechanisms of heat transfer, i.e., convection, conduction, and radiation, were included in the analysis. The convective heat transfer due to turbulent fluid motion was modeled with the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number; and heat conduction was solved directly for both fluid and solid.
Journal Article

Lubrication Analysis of Floating Ring Bearings Considering Floating Ring Heat Transfer

2016-04-05
2016-01-0485
Turbochargers improve performance in internal combustion engines. Due to low production costs, TC assemblies are supported on floating ring bearings. In current lubrication analysis of floating ring bearing, inner and outer oil film are usually supposed to be adiabatic. The heat generated by frictional power is carried out by the lubricant flow. In reality, under real operating conditions, there existed heat transfer between the inner and outer film. In this paper, the lubrication performance of floating ring bearing when considering heat transfer between inner film and outer film is studied. The lubrication model of the floating ring is established and the heat transferred through the ring between the inner and outer film is calculated. The calculation results show that heat flow between the inner and outer film under different outer film eccentricity ratio and rotate ratio has a large difference.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Underhood Fluid Field and Cooling Performance for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicle under Different Driving Conditions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2902
As the commercial vehicle increases staggeringly in China, environmental pollution and excessively fuel consumption can't be neglected anymore. Vehicle thermal management has been adopted by many vehicle manufactures as an ideal alternative to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission by its cost-efficient and effective merit. In addition, the components in heavy duty commercial vehicle engine hood may suffer overheat harm. Hence investigating the thermal characteristics in engine hood can be an effective way to identify and dismiss the potential overheat harm. In terms of this, the paper has adopted CFD simulation method to obtain the comprehensive thermal flow field characteristics of engine hood in a heavy commercial vehicle. Then by analyzing the thermal flow field in engine hood, concerning optimization strategies were put forward to improve the thermal environment.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of Power Batteries for Electric Vehicles Using Phase Change Materials: A Review

2016-04-05
2016-01-1204
As one of the most crucial components in electric vehicles, power batteries generate abundant heat during charging and discharging processes. Thermal management system (TMS), which is designed to keep the battery cells within an optimum temperature range and to maintain an even temperature distribution from cell to cell, is vital for the high efficiency, long calendar life and reliable safety of these power batteries. With the desirable features of low system complexity, light weight, high energy efficiency and good battery thermal uniformity, thermal management using composite phase change materials (PCMs) has drawn great attention in the past fifteen years. In the hope of supplying helpful guidelines for the design of the PCM-based TMSs, this work begins with the summarization of the most commonly applied heat transfer enhancement methods (i.e., the use of thermally conductive particles, metal fin, expanded graphite matrix and metal foam) for PCMs by different researchers.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Geometry Effects on Flow, Heat Transfer and Defrosting Characteristics of a Simplified Automobile Windshield with a Single Row of Impinging Jets

2016-04-05
2016-01-0208
The effect of jet geometry on flow, heat transfer and defrosting characteristics was numerically investigated for elliptic and rectangular impinging jets on an automobile windshield. Initially, various turbulence models within the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT were employed and validated for a single jet, and the results indicated that the impinging jet heat transfer was more accurately predicted by the SST k -ω turbulence model, which was then utilized for this study. The aspect ratios (AR) of elliptic and rectangular jets were respectively 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, with jet-to-target spacing h/d=2, 4 and jet-to-jet spacing c/d=4, and all those situations were numerically analyzed with the same air mass flow and jet open area. It was observed that the heat transfer coefficient and defrosting performance of the inclined windshield were significantly affected by the shape of the jet, and the best results were obtained with the elliptic jet arrangements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics at Different Altitudes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0308
In this study, effects of altitude on free diesel spray morphology, macroscopic spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process were investigated. The diesel spray visualization experiment using high-speed photography was performed in a constant volume chamber which reproduced the injection diesel-like thermodynamic conditions of a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine operating at sea level and 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m above sea level. The results showed that the spray morphology became narrower and longer at higher altitude, and small vortex-like structures were observed on the downstream spray periphery. Spray penetration increased and spray angle decreased with increasing altitude. At altitudes of 0 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m, the spray penetration at 1.45 ms after start of injection (ASOI) were 79.54 mm, 80.51 mm, 81.49 mm, 83.29 mm and 88.92 mm respectively, and the spray angle were 10.9°, 10.8°, 10.7°, 10.4°and 9.8° respectively.
Technical Paper

Simulation Analysis of Environmental Adaptability of High Pressure Fuel Cell Engine Air Supply System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1306
High pressure fuel cell engine, namely high pressure fuel cell system for automobiles, is the core power plant of fuel cell vehicle. Among many categories of fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is the most widely used one for automotive applications, with the characteristic of high power density, fast response and moderate working conditions. The cathode oxygen supply in PEMFC is one of the most important factors which affects its output power and operational lifespan. Reasonable regulation of air supply process flow and pressure can effectively improve system’s performance and efficiency. In this paper, a mathematical model of the air supply system and a model of altitude and environmental pressure are established in MATLAB \ Simulink by mechanism modeling method. Then the modules of the air supply system are integrated to supply air to the 85 KW PEMFC stack model.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Comprehensive Evaluation Research and Application on Vehicle Engine Exhaust System

2018-04-15
2018-01-5011
During current design process of vehicle engine exhaust system, the frequently-used approach mainly concerns an individual component, which usually results in not meeting the overall design requirements or unreasonable design parameters. Here a concept of comprehensive evaluation metrics for vehicle engine exhaust system was established, of which a new weight factor assignment method was proposed, named change rate method, as the core of evaluation system to be especially studied. Taking muffler as an instance, six weight factor assignment schemes were adopted to compare with each other. And the rationality and practicability of the change rate assignment method was verified by the muffler noise experiments. The results show that, the change rate method makes the weight assignment more scientific and rigorous. And the new method can reflect the wishes of designers and completely displays the performance comparison and evaluation between schemes.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model of High-Power Lithium Ion Battery Under Freezing Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0445
Lithium ion battery is considered as one of the most possible energy storage equipment for new energy vehicles (EV, HEV, etc.) because of the advantages of long cycle life, high power density and low self-discharge rate. However, under freezing condition high power battery suffers of significant performances losses. For example, they would suffer from significant power capability losses and poor rate performance, which would restrict the availability to delivery or to gain of high current in transient conditions. To evaluate those performance drawbacks and to make an efficient design, good mathematical models are required for system simulation especially for battery thermal management. In this paper, a three-dimensional homogenization thermal model of a 20 Ah prismatic lithium ion battery with LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode is described.
Technical Paper

Studies on Impact Performance of Gradient Lattice Structure Applied to Crash Box

2018-04-03
2018-01-0119
The conventional crash box with thin-walled column conceals some limitations on pedestrian protection and lightweight. The metallic NPR metamaterials designed in this study are based on re-entrant lattice structures. Re-entrant structures are known to be one main class of axenic structures that display negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which can be manufactured by 3D printing technology. This kind of metamaterial has good designability and can be used as the filling structure of the crash box to improve the crashworthiness of the car. This paper starts from the relations between geometric parameters of the metamaterial. Considering the deformation characteristics of the crash box, the structure were designed into some gradient types. The mechanical properties of different gradient structures under the same impact conditions were compared to find the proper gradient structures. Based on the studies, the gradient lattice structure is applied to the automobile crash box.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Algorithm of Air Supply System for High-Pressure PEMFC Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0379
The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is the most widely used engine in fuel cell vehicles. For PEMFC, whether the supply of oxygen for cathode is adequate or not is a critical factor for its net output power and service life, and the proper control of air supply mass flow and pressure can effectively improve its system performance and efficiency. At present, fuel cells need to reduce the mass and volume and increase the power density. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the air supply pressure for PEMFC. But at the same time, many auxiliary devices are appended to the system to provide high-pressure air, such as air compressor, intercooler, and back pressure valve, which make the control of the entire air supply system very complicated. So an excellent control algorithm is needed.
Technical Paper

Research on Fast Filling Strategy of Large Capacity On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank for Highway Passenger Cars

2020-04-14
2020-01-0855
In order to study the fast filling problem of large-capacity on-board hydrogen storage tank for highway passenger cars, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of 134L large-capacity hydrogen storage tank was established. By simulating different pre-cooling temperatures and mass flow rates, the temperature distribution and thermal transmission in the tank were observed. Due to the large ratio of length to diameter of the hydrogen tank, the temperature distribution is extremely uneven during the whole filling process, and the high temperature area is mainly concentrated in the tank tail. And the heat transfer between the gas and the tank wall is not obvious under the low and constant mass flow rate. The temperature rise process during the whole filling process under different mass flow conditions was simulated to satisfy the highest safe temperature limit.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Operating Conditions on the Water and Thermal Management for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell by One-Dimensional Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0856
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Parametric Analysis of Battery Thermal Management System Using Phase Change Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-0866
The thermophysical parameters and amount of composite phase change materials (PCMs) have decisive influence on the thermal control effects of thermal management systems (TMSs). At the same time, the various thermophysical parameters of the composite PCM are interrelated. For example, increasing the thermal conductivity is bound to mean a decrease in the latent heat of phase change, so a balance needs to be achieved between these parameters. In this paper, a prismatic LiFePO4 battery cell cooled by composite PCM is comprehensively analyzed by changing the phase change temperature, thermal conductivity and amount of composite PCM. The influence of the composite PCM parameters on the cooling and temperature homogenization effect of the TMS is analyzed. which can give useful guide to the preparation of composite PCMs and design of the heat transfer enhancement methods for TMSs.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on CuO Nanofluids as Heat Transfer Medium for Diesel Engine Cooling System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1109
CuO-water nanofluids was utilized as heat transfer medium in the cooling system of the diesel engine. By using CFD-Fluent software, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% mass concentration of nanofluids, 3-dimensional numerical simulation about flow and heat transfer process in the cooling system of engine was actualized. According to stochastic particle tracking in turbulent flow, for solid-liquid two phase flow discrete phase, the moving track of nanoparticles was traced. By this way, for CuO nanoparticles of different mass concentration nanofliuds in the cooling jacket of diesel engine, the results of the concentration distribution, velocity distribution, internal energy variation, resident time, total heat transfer and variation of total pressure reduction between inlet and outlet were ascertained.
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