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Technical Paper

Effect of Coflow Temperature on the Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flames and its Transient HC Distribution under Atmospheric Conditions

2007-10-29
2007-01-4028
A Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA) Combustor enables the investigation of stabilization mechanisms in an environment that decouples the turbulent chemical kinetics from the complex recirculating flow. Previous studies on combustion of the low-pressure fuel jets in the Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA) showed non-linear effect of coflow temperature on autoignition delay and the randomness of autoignition sites. In this work, a diesel spray is injected into the CATA with the injection pressure at 20MPa from a single-hole injector and the autoignition and combustion process of the spray is recorded by a high-speed camera video. The multipoint autoignition of diesel spray is observed in the CATA and the subsequent combustion process is analyzed. The results show that autoignition phenomenon plays an important role in the stabilization of the lifted flames of diesel spray under low coflow temperature.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Radiation and Conjugate Heat Transfers for Vehicle Underbody

2008-06-23
2008-01-1819
A computational study was conducted in order to characterize the heat transfers in a sedan vehicle underbody and the exhaust system. A steady-state analysis with consideration for both the radiation and conjugate heat transfers was undertaken using the High-Reynolds formulation of the k-epsilon turbulence model with standard wall function and the DO model for the radiation heat transfer. All three mechanisms of heat transfer, i.e., convection, conduction, and radiation, were included in the analysis. The convective heat transfer due to turbulent fluid motion was modeled with the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number; and heat conduction was solved directly for both fluid and solid.
Technical Paper

Study on EP Energy-Saving Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1775
The price of fossil fuels and the increasing inexorable energy crisis have become vital issues for everyone. Tongji University EconoPower Racing Team was established to participate in the “Honda EconoPower Cup” annually. Every contestant in the competition must finish a certain distance in the fixed time, with the gasoline supplied by the committee. After that the committee will measure the fuel consumption of every team and calculate the distance per liter fuel (the farther the better) to determine the champion. In order to enhance the EP vehicle's achievement we've made some improvements, such as framework, body, engine's optimization and so on. In this passage we mainly state some details of our research approaches in framework, steering, transmission, shape and driving strategy. The main technologies were: friction reduction, lightweight, enhancement of power train efficiency, tire selection and driving strategy.
Technical Paper

Gear Rattle Prediction Based on Compliance and Deformation of Gear Contact Points

2016-04-05
2016-01-1094
Generally, the gear rattle noise prediction models are composed of the mass and stiffness elements. The proposals are about the gear inertia or backlash and the shaft inertia or stiffness, but there are many detailed designs in the same inertia, stiffness or backlash conditions. Therefore, these proposals can’t guide detailed designs. These models only investigate the rattle in the rotating degree, and ignore rattle contribution in the radical and axial directions. Those prediction models only consider one or several factors which affect the rattle noise performance. It is difficult to predict the influence of individual factor and multi-factors coupling on the gear rattle noise in a rattle simulation model.
Journal Article

Effects of Installation Environment on Flow around Rear View Mirror

2017-03-28
2017-01-1517
External rear view mirror is attached at the side of the vehicle which is to permit clear vision for the driver to the rear of the vehicle. When the vehicle is running, the flow field around external rear view mirror is highly three-dimensional, unsteady, separated and turbulent which is known to be a significant source of aerodynamic noise and a contributor to the total drag force on the vehicle. While among all the researches on the flow field around external rear view mirror, different installation environment were employed. The external rear view mirror is mounted on a production car in most researches which presents the real condition and it can also be mounted on the ground of a wind tunnel, a specially designed table, or a generic vehicle model based on the SAE model. While, the relationship between the flow field around external rear view mirror and the installation environment is not very clear.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Camera-Radar Vehicle Tracking with Image Perceptual Hash Encoding

2017-09-23
2017-01-1971
For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
Journal Article

Re-Design for Automotive Window Seal Considering High Speed Fluid-Structure Interaction

2017-04-11
2017-01-9452
Automotive window seal has great influence on NVH (Noise-Vibration-Harshness) performance. The aerodynamic effect on ride comfort has attracted increasing research interest recently. A new method for quantifying and transferring aerodynamics-induced load on window seal re-design is proposed. Firstly, by SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, external turbulent flow field of full scale automotive is established by solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible Navier-Stokes equation. With re-exploited mapping algorithm, the aerodynamics pressure on overall auto-body is retrieved and transferred to local glass area to be external loads for seals, thus taking into account the aerodynamics effect of high speed fluid-structure interaction. This method is successfully applied on automotive front window seal design. The re-design header seal decreases the maximum displacements of leeward and windward glass with 9.3% and 34.21%, respectively.
Technical Paper

On-line Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Power Prediction by Twice Recursive Method Based on Dynamic Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1311
State-of-Power (SoP) prediction of Li-ion battery is necessary in battery management system for electric vehicles in order to deal with limited conditions, prevent overcharge and over discharge situations, increase the life of the battery and provide effective battery operation. This article suggests a method to on-line predict the 10-s charge and discharge peak power of Li-ion battery by twice recursions. First with the dynamic battery model we use the first recursion based on a least square method to get parameters which are influenced by the state of charge of Li-ion battery and temperature, etc. The dynamic model is an equivalent circuit model. Current and voltage are input online into the battery model. By recursive least square method the parameters are updated in real time. Moreover, when we use a recursive method to get real-time parameters, we add an extra proper factor to abandon old datum, which increases the real-time capability of state-of-power prediction.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of Automotive Aerodynamic Noise Generation and Transmission Considering Equivalent Nonlinear Sealing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0469
Aerodynamic noise transmits through automotive window, causing great adverse influence on comfortability and noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) performance. However, the complicated external turbulent air flow, as well as the internal metal-rubber nonlinear sealing constraint, makes the mechanism of aerodynamic noise generation and transmission very difficult. Regarding the complex exterior aerodynamics-induced load and nonlinear metal-rubber interaction and constraint, an efficient two-step numerical prediction method is presented in order to study the mechanism of its generation and transmission. The first step uses the commercial ANSYS-Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis based on the shear stress transport (SST) - turbulence kinetic energy (k) - the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy ε (epsilon) model and Lighthill’s noise source theory.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Different Wheel Rotating Simulation Methods in Automotive Aerodynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0728
Wheel Aerodynamics is an important part of vehicle aerodynamics. The wheels can notably influence the total aerodynamic drag, lift and ventilation drag of vehicles. In order to simulate the real on-road condition of driving cars, the moving ground and wheel rotation is of major importance in CFD. However, the wheel rotation condition is difficult to be represented exactly, so this is still a critical topic which needs to be worked on. In this paper, a study, which focuses on two types of cars: a fastback sedan and a notchback DrivAer, is conducted. Comparing three different wheel rotating simulation methods: steady Moving wall, MRF and unsteady Sliding Mesh, the effects of different methods for the numerical simulation of vehicle aerodynamics are revealed. Discrepancies of aerodynamic forces between the methods are discussed as well as the flow field, and the simulation results are also compared with published experimental data for validation.
Technical Paper

Optimization Design of Rear-Engine Bus Cooling System Based on 1D/3D Coupling Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0771
This study investigated the effects of underhood structure parameters (two types of air ducts, two types of inlet grilles and the opening angle of inlet grilles) on the cooling characteristics of the rear-engine bus; then, the optimum design scheme of the underhood was determined. The air-side resistance load of the cooling system, which is based on fan performance, was selected as the optimization objective. Simulations were created based on a porous media model and standard a k-ε model. The next step was to build a 1D/3D coupling simulation to utilize the advantages of 1D simulation’s fast convergence speed and 3D simulation’s extensive research range. Besides, the use of 1D/3D coupling simulation can efficiently avoid the errors of simulation results which arise from the non-uniform airflow on the cooling module. Results show that the airflow rate of the rectangular air duct increased by 7 to 11percent.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Allocation for Distributed Drive Electric Skid-Steered Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

2018-04-03
2018-01-0579
Steering of skid-steered vehicles without steering mechanism is realized by differential drive/brake torque generated from in-wheel motors at left and right sides. Compared to traditional Ackerman-steered vehicles, skid-steered vehicles consume much more energy while steering due to greater steering resistance. Torque allocation is critical to the distributed drive skid-steered vehicles, since it influences not only steering performance, but also energy efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles were analyzed, and a 2-DOF vehicle model was established, which is important for both motion tracking control and torque allocation. Furthermore, a hierarchical controller was proposed. Considering tire force characteristics and tire slip, the upper layer calculates the generalized force and desired yaw moment based on anti-windup PI (proportion-integral) control method.
Journal Article

Effect of Vortex Generator on Flow Field Quality in 3/4 Open Jet Automotive Wind Tunnel

2017-03-28
2017-01-1530
Based on a 1:15 scaled 3/4 open jet automotive wind tunnel, this paper studies the effect of vortex generator on the buffeting phenomenon. The mean velocity, static pressure gradient, turbulent intensity as well as frequencies of fluctuant velocities have been explored experimentally with and without vortex generator. It shows that the less protruding vortex generator could control the buffeting phenomenon and improve the flow quality. Furthermore, the unsteady coherent structures in the jet shear layer have been visualized and analyzed by Detached-eddy simulation (DES). The vortex-ring pairing process is identified in the shear layer along with obvious frequency characteristics and velocity fluctuations. The vortex generator can postpone and restrain this vortex-ring pairing process, then reducing the velocity fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Study on Real-World NOx and Particle Emissions of Bus: Influences of VSP and Fuel

2019-04-02
2019-01-1181
In this study, the real-world NOx and particle emissions of buses burning pure diesel fuel (D100), biodiesel fuel with 20% blend ratio (B20) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) were measured with portable emission measurement system (PEMS). The measurement conducted at 6 constant speed, which ranged from 10km/h to 60 km/h at 10km/h intervals, and a period of free driving condition. The relationship between vehicle specific power (VSP) and NOx/particle emissions of each bus were analyzed. The results show that the change rules of NOx, PN and PM emission factors with the increase of VSP were basically the same for the same bus, but for the bus using different fuel, the change rules may change. In VSP bin 0, the vehicles were mostly in idle condition and the emission factors of NOx, PN and PM of three buses were all in a relatively high level. In low VSP interval, which ranged from bin 0 to bin 4, the emissions of three buses first decreased and then increased with the growth of VSP.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Metal and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Structures under Loading Uncertainties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0709
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and perfect corrosion resistance. However, in reality, CFRP composite materials cannot be used alone in some critical places such as positions of joints with hinges, locks. Therefore, metal reinforcements are usually necessary in local positions to prevent structure damage. Besides, if uncertainties present, obtained optimal structures may experience in failures as the optimization usually pushes solutions to the boundaries of constraints and has no room for tolerance and uncertainties, so robust optimization should be considered to accommodate the uncertainties in practice. This paper proposes a mixed topology method to optimize metal and carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite materials simultaneously under nondeterministic load with random magnitude and direction.
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