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Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Wastegate Diameter on Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Perfor mance

Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Novel Electromechanical Brake Actuator Adopting the Two Way Ball Screw

In this paper, a novel Electromechanical Brake actuator (EMB) is redesigned aimed at an electric vehicle driven by wheel hub motor. The two way ball screw is adopted in this mechanism. Clearance automatic adjustment and parking braking function is added in this mechanism. As a consequence, fast braking response is achieved and the wear difference of the inner and outer pads can be minimized and the initial braking force can also be improved. The electric vehicle is based on a traditional chassis. In this electric vehicle which driven by wheel hub motor, the brake disc and brake actuator will be correspondingly moved inside because wheel hub motor will take up inner space of wheel hub. As a result, the actuator might interfere with the suspension and steering systems and influence hard spot of chassis design. To solve this problem, conversely installed caliper concept is used in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design Aspects of a Novel Active and Energy Regenerative Suspension

Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension (AERS) utilizing electromagnetic actuator, this paper investigates the benchmark cars available on the market and summaries the suspension features. Basing on the investigation, a design reference for AERS design is proposed. To determine the parameters of the actuator, a principle is proposed and the parameters of the actuator are designed accordingly. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the AERS. Basing on the suspension structure of the design reference model and utilizing rotary type PMSM, a novel AERS structure is proposed.
Technical Paper

Path Following of Skid Steering Vehicles Based on Line-of-Sight Navigation

Path following controller of a six-wheel skid-steering vehicle is designed. The vehicle speed is controlled through engine speed control and the lateral vehicle steering is controlled through hydraulic braking on each side. Contrary to the common approaches considering non-holonomic constraints, vehicle dynamic characteristics and nonlinear characteristics of tire are considered. A hierarchical control structure is applied in this vehicle control system. The kinematic controller works out the reference yaw rate and reference vehicle speed. And a robust dynamic controller tracks the reference signal. In addition, the dynamic controller takes actuator ability into account.
Technical Paper

A Lithium-Ion Battery Optimized Equivalent Circuit Model based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy battery model based on the porous electrode theory is used in the paper, which can comprehensively depict the internal state of the battery. The effect of battery key parameters (the radius of particle, electrochemical reaction rate constant, solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficient, conductivity) to the simulated impedance spectroscopy are discussed. Based on the EIS analysis, a lithium-ion battery optimized equivalent circuit model is built. The parameters in the equivalent circuit model have more clear physical meaning. The reliability of the optimized equivalent circuit model is verified by compared the model and experiments. The relationship between the external condition and internal resistance could be studied according to the optimized equivalent circuit model. Thus the internal process of the power battery is better understood.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Shanghai’s Industry Chain of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Based on AHP Method

Chinese National projects “13th Five Year Plan” and “Made in China 2025” have both put forward a goal of developing Intelligent and Connected Vehicles(ICV). Shanghai is a typical city of automobile industry which spearhead the development of China’s ICV industry. After the adjustment and transition of industrial structure, Shanghai has initially formed the industrialization layout of ICV covering core areas including environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, actuator, human-computer interaction and vehicle integration. However, currently Shanghai is still in the beginning stage and there exists a large gap with world advanced level in both the core technology and marketization. This article is based on former qualitative survey combined with quantitative analysis which uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) method to objectively evaluate the status quo and development trend of Shanghai’s ICV.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Camera-Radar Vehicle Tracking with Image Perceptual Hash Encoding

For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
Technical Paper

The Design and Evaluation of EMB Actuator Scheme

Electromechanical Braking System (EMB) stops the wheel by motor and related enforce mechanism to drive braking pads to clamp the friction plate. It is compact in sized as well as faster in response, which solves the issue of potential leakage and slows response of traditional hydraulic brake system. The institutions at home and abroad have put forward all kinds of new structural schemes of EMB. At present, there are various EMB structural schemes, but the analysis and evaluation of these schemes are relatively few. In this paper, on the basis of a large number of research, the EMB actuator is modular decomposed according to function ,then the parametric 3D model library of each function module is established. According to brake requirements of the target vehicle, a development platform is set up to match EMB actuator structure scheme quickly.
Technical Paper

Application Oriented Testcase Generation for Validation of Environment Perception Sensor in Automated Driving Systems

Validation is one of the main challenges in development of automated driving systems (ADS). Due to the complexity of these systems and the various influence factors on their functional safety, current testcase generation methods can hardly guarantee the completeness and effectivity of the validation on system level. Separate validation of system components is a way to make system approval possible. In this paper, an approach is presented to generate deductively testcases for the validation of the environment perception sensors, which are the most essential components of ADS. This approach is originated from the model-based testing method, which is commonly used to validate software-based systems and extended by considering various external influence factors as follows: By modeling and analyzing applications in ADS, application oriented usecases of perception sensors are first derived.
Technical Paper

Study on Target Tracking Based on Vision and Radar Sensor Fusion

Faced with intricate traffic conditions, the single sensor has been unable to meet the safety requirements of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving. In the field of multi-target tracking, the number of targets detected by vision sensor is sometimes less than the current tracks while the number of targets detected by millimeter wave radar is more than the current tracks. Hence, a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm is presented by utilizing advantage of both vision sensor and millimeter wave radar. The multi-sensor fusion algorithm is based on centralized fusion strategy that the fusion center takes a unified track management. At First, vision sensor and radar are used to detect the target and to measure the range and the azimuth angle of the target. Then, the detections data from vision sensor and radar is transferred to fusion center to join the multi-target tracking with the prediction of current tracks.
Technical Paper

An Online Fault Detection and Isolation Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

An online fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for several common sensor faults and even demagnetization of PMSM is proposed by combining model-based and signal analysis technology. To begin with, the field reconstruction method (FRM) of PMSM is employed to obtain the flux residuals which are used as the criterion of fault detection. Then, the flux residuals are transformed by multi sequence harmonic synchronous rotating transformation and inputted into low pass filters (LPFs) in order to obtain the DC components. Last, offset and gain faults of the two phase current sensors, offset fault of the rotor angle sensor and permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization can be isolated by comparing the DC components and preset thresholds. The detection and isolation strategy of PMSM is validated by motor controller hardware in motor bench tests.
Technical Paper

A Novel Battery Impedance Model Considering Internal Temperature Gradient

Battery models are often applied to describe the dynamic characteristics of batteries and can be used to predict the state of the battery. Due to the process of charging and discharging, the battery heat generation will cause the inhomogeneity between inner battery temperature and surface temperature. In this paper, a novel battery impedance model, which takes the impact of the battery internal temperature gradient on battery impedance into account, is proposed to improve the battery model performance. Several experiments are designed and conducted for pouch typed battery to investigate the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characteristics with the artificial temperature gradient (using a heating plate). Experimental results indicate that the battery internal temperature gradient will influence battery EIS regularly.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Validation for Pressure Estimation Algorithms of Decoupled EHB Based on Actuator Characteristics and Vehicle Dynamics

Recently, electro-hydraulic brake systems (EHB) has been developed to take place of the vacuum booster, having the advantage of faster pressure build-up and continuous pressure regulation. In contrast to the vacuum booster, the pressure estimation for EHB is worth to be studied due to its abundant resource (i.e. electric motor) and cost-effective benefit. This work improves an interconnected pressure estimation algorithm (IPEA) based on actuator characteristics by introducing the vehicle dynamics and validates it via vehicle tests. Considering the previous IPEA as the prior pressure estimation, the wheel speed feedback is used for modification via a proportional-integral (PI) observer. Superior to the IPEA based on actuator characteristics, the proposed PEA improves the accuracy by more than 20% under the mismatch of pressure-position relation.
Technical Paper

Joint Calibration of Dual LiDARs and Camera Using a Circular Chessboard

Environmental perception is a crucial subsystem in autonomous vehicles. In order to build safe and efficient traffic transportation, several researches have been proposed to build accurate, robust and real-time perception systems. Camera and LiDAR are widely equipped on autonomous self-driving cars and developed with many algorithms in recent years. The fusion system of camera and LiDAR provides state-of the-art methods for environmental perception due to the defects of single vehicular sensor. Extrinsic parameter calibration is able to align the coordinate systems of sensors and has been drawing enormous attention. However, differ from spatial alignment of two sensors’ data, joint calibration of multi-sensors (more than two sensors) should balance the degree of alignment between each two sensors.
Technical Paper

The Dynamic Electromagnetic Distribution and Electromagnetic Interference Suppression of Smart Electric Vehicle

Smart electric vehicles need more accurate and more timely information as well as control than traditional vehicles, which depends on great environmental sensors such as millimeter-wave radar. In this way, the electromagnetic compatibility of whole vehicle would confront more serious challenges because of its high frequency range. Thus, this paper studies the electromagnetic distribution and electromagnetic interference suppression of smart electric vehicles with the followings. Firstly, the millimeter wave radar is modeled and optimized. Micro strip patch antenna, with small size, light mass and low cost, is used as array element of antenna. Millimeter wave radar is modeled and simulated step by step from array element to line array to planar matrix. Then the Cross Shape - Uniplanar Compact - Electromagnetic Band Gap (CS-UC-EBG) structure is deployed to optimize its electromagnetic characteristics, based on finite time domain difference model theory.