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Technical Paper

Development of Composite Brake Pedal Stroke Simulator for Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0117
A brake pedal stroke simulator for Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHBS) was developed to ensure the comfort braking pedal feel for the brake-by-wire system. An EHBS with an integrated master cylinder was proposed, and a composite brake pedal stroke simulator was designed for the EHBS, which was comprised of two inline springs and a third parallel one. A normally closed solenoid valve was used to connect the master cylinder booster chamber and the stroke simulator. The suitable brake pedal stroke was achieved by three stages of these springs' compression, whereas the solenoid valve was shutdown to enable mechanical control of the service brakes when electrical faults appeared.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injector Spray Layout and Injection Strategy on Gas Mixture Quality of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0747
The improvement of environmental performance by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is remarkable. But the gas mixture formation process, which greatly affects the combustion of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, still has a lot of areas left unclear. In this paper, a CFD model of air intake, fuel spray atomization and mixture formation process of a certain GDI engine was developed and experimentally verified for DISI injection study. The effects of injector spray layout and injection strategy on mixture quality of DISI engine were analyzed by respective simulation of three different injectors T1470, T1471, T1472. Results show that the mixture quality can be improved with appropriate injector spray orifices layout.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Crevice on Transient HC Emissions of First Firing Cycle at Cold Start on LPG SI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4015
By changing the top-land radial clearance, this paper presents the effect of the piston crevice on the transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. The results show that increasing 50% crevice volume leads to 25% increase of HC emissions in the lean region and 18% increase of HC emissions in the rich region, however, the 50% increase of crevice volume contributes to 32% decease of HC emissions in the stable combustion region. For LPG SI engine, the HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start are relatively low in a wide range of the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start

2006-04-03
2006-01-1050
The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not. A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crevice HC Mechanism Based on the Transient HC Test Data and the Double Zone Combustion Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1652
The effectiveness of after-treatment systems depends on the exhaust gas temperature, which is low during cold-start. As a result, Euro III, Euro IV and FTP75 require that the emissions tests include exhaust from the beginning of cold start. It is proved that 50%∼80% of HC and CO emissions are emitted during the cold start and the amount of unburned fuel from the crevices during starting is much higher than that under warmed engine conditions. The piston crevices is the most part of combustion chamber crevices, and results of mathematical simulations show that the piston crevice contribution to HC emissions is expected to increase during cold engine operation. Based on the transient HC test data and the double zone combustion model, this paper presents the study of the crevice HC Mechanism of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle.
Technical Paper

The Nonlinear Characteristics Impact of Multi-Staged Stiffness Clutch Damper on the Vehicle Creeping

2016-04-05
2016-01-0431
The nonlinear characteristics impact of multi-staged stiffness clutch damper on the vehicle creeping is investigated by using the lumped-parameter modeling method as a certain mass-production passenger sedan is taken as the research subject. Firstly, a quasi-transient engine model of an inline four-cylinder and four-stroke engine, based on measured data of cylinder gas pressure versus crankshaft angle, is derived. Effective output torque is acquired and as the input excitation to the driveline system. Secondly, a 12-DOF (Degree of Freedom) nonlinear and branched powertrain system and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established. The differential mechanism characteristics and dynamic tire property based on the LuGre tire model are considered. Then, for a traditional two-staged stiffness clutch damper in consideration of hysteresis characteristics, vehicle powertrain system responses in both the time and frequency domain are obtained.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis on Multi-Layer-Steel Cylinder Head Gaskets

2016-04-05
2016-01-1381
Sealing system is an important subsystem of modern high-performance engine. Sealing system reliability directly affects the engine operating conditions. Cylinder head gaskets(CHG) sealing system is of the most importance to the engine sealing system, which is not only responsible for sealing chamber, the cooling fluid and lubricating oil passage, for preventing gas leakage, water leakage and oil leakage, but also responsible for force transferring between cylinder head and cylinder body. Basing on nonlinear solution method, the sealing performance of multi-layer-steel cylinder head gaskets to a gasoline engine is studied with the finite element software ABAQUS. The deformations of the cylinder liners and engine block are also considered.
Technical Paper

The Study on Fatigue Test of Cab Assembly Based on 4-Channel Road Simulation Bench

2017-03-28
2017-01-0328
The multi-body dynamics simulation and physical iteration were carried out based on the 4-channel road simulation bench, the solution of fatigue test bench which was suitable for cab with frame and suspension was designed. Large load and displacement above the suspension can be loaded on the test bench, and the same weak position of cab exposed on the road test can be assessed well on the fatigue test bench. The effectiveness of the bench test solution was verified though comparative study. And it has important reference for the same type of cab assembly with suspension in the fatigue bench test. According to the durability specifications of cab assembly, a multi-body dynamics model with a satisfactory accuracy was built. And the fixture check and virtual iteration analysis were used to verify the effectiveness of the solution. According to the road load signal analysis and multi-body dynamics analysis results, the test bench with linear guide and spherical joint was built.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Knock and Pre-Ignition Detection Using Ion Current Signal on a Boosted Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0792
In order to meet the ever more stringent demands on the CO2 emission reduction, downsized modern gasoline engine with highly boosted turbo charger meets new challenges such as super knock and pre-ignition, which will influence the engine combustion efficiency, smooth operation and even cause mechanical failure. A spark plug type ion current detection sensor was used in a 1.8L turbo charged gasoline engine. The ion-current wave signal differed greatly under different engine operating conditions such as without knock, with knock of different knock intensities. The frequency spectrum of ion-current was also studied, by the method of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In knocking cycles, there were fluctuations of frequency 8-13 kHz both in the combustion pressure signal and in the ion current signal, proving the existence of knock information.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Cylinder Gasket under Cylinder Pressure and Structural Optimization of the Cylinder Gasket

2017-03-28
2017-01-1080
This paper aimed at a gasoline engine "cylinder head- cylinder gasket-cylinder body-bolt" sealing system, built the 3D solid model and the finite element model of the assembly, and calculated the stress and strain of the cylinder gasket under the cylinder pressure and the deformation of the engine block. In addition, based on the calculation results, this paper put forward the optimization scheme of the cylinder gasket structure, re-established the simulation model, and get the calculation results. The calculation results showed that the cylinder pressure had influence on the sealing performance of the cylinder gasket, and the influence of cylinder pressure should be taken into consideration when designing the cylinder gasket. When the cylinder pressure was applied, the overall contact stress of the cylinder gasket had decreased, and the whole remaining height of the gasket had increased.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Water Injection Timing on Common Rail Diesel Engine Combustion Process and Efficiency Enhancement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2281
The present work aims at optimizing diesel engine combustion efficiency with optimized water injection strategy. The engine had been modified based on a two-cylinder mechanical pump diesel engine into common rail diesel engine with capability of direct water injection. The direct water injection system was designed and manufactured independently. An air-fluid booster was utilized to establish the water injection pressure up to 40MPa. Customized diesel injector was selected to be used as water injector in this study. Water injection strategy was optimized in detail with injection timing around TDC which ranges from 12°CA BTDC to -5°CA BTDC under 10 bar IMEP. The engine efficiency can be improved under selected water injection strategy due to the increment of work fluid in the combustion chamber. Moreover, the nitric oxides emissions show decrement around 10%.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0581
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Auto-Ignition for Lubricants and Lubricant/Gasoline Based on an Innovative Single Droplet Test System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1428
Due to the advantages of low weight, low emissions and good fuel economy, downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are widely-applied nowadays. However, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) phenomenon observed in these engines restricts their improvement of performance. Some researchers have shown that auto-ignition of lubricant in the combustion chamber has a great effect on the LSPI frequency. To study the auto-ignition characteristics of lubricant, an innovative single droplet auto-ignition test system for lubricant and its mixture is designed and developed, with better accuracy and effectiveness. The experiments are carried out by hanging lubricant droplets on the thermocouple node under active thermo-atmosphere provided by a small “Dibble burner”. The auto-ignition process of lubricant droplets is recorded by a high-speed camera.
Journal Article

Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design on An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1578
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque. In contrast, regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
Journal Article

Study of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Coupled with Oxy-Fuel Combustion Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-0649
The present work proposed to implement oxy-fuel combustion mode into a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to reduce complexity in engine emissions after-treatment and lower carbon dioxide emission. The combination of oxy-fuel combustion mode with homogeneous charge compression ignition engine can be further optimized by the utilization of direct high temperature and pressure water injection to improve cycle performance. A retrofitted conventional diesel engine coupled with port fuel injection and direct water injection is utilized in this study. A self-designed oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture intake system with flexible oxygen fraction adjustment ability is implemented in the test bench to simulate the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation. Water injection system is directly installed in the combustion chamber with a modified high speed solenoid diesel injector.
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