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Technical Paper

Development of Composite Brake Pedal Stroke Simulator for Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0117
A brake pedal stroke simulator for Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHBS) was developed to ensure the comfort braking pedal feel for the brake-by-wire system. An EHBS with an integrated master cylinder was proposed, and a composite brake pedal stroke simulator was designed for the EHBS, which was comprised of two inline springs and a third parallel one. A normally closed solenoid valve was used to connect the master cylinder booster chamber and the stroke simulator. The suitable brake pedal stroke was achieved by three stages of these springs' compression, whereas the solenoid valve was shutdown to enable mechanical control of the service brakes when electrical faults appeared.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injector Spray Layout and Injection Strategy on Gas Mixture Quality of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0747
The improvement of environmental performance by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is remarkable. But the gas mixture formation process, which greatly affects the combustion of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, still has a lot of areas left unclear. In this paper, a CFD model of air intake, fuel spray atomization and mixture formation process of a certain GDI engine was developed and experimentally verified for DISI injection study. The effects of injector spray layout and injection strategy on mixture quality of DISI engine were analyzed by respective simulation of three different injectors T1470, T1471, T1472. Results show that the mixture quality can be improved with appropriate injector spray orifices layout.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Crevice on Transient HC Emissions of First Firing Cycle at Cold Start on LPG SI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4015
By changing the top-land radial clearance, this paper presents the effect of the piston crevice on the transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. The results show that increasing 50% crevice volume leads to 25% increase of HC emissions in the lean region and 18% increase of HC emissions in the rich region, however, the 50% increase of crevice volume contributes to 32% decease of HC emissions in the stable combustion region. For LPG SI engine, the HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start are relatively low in a wide range of the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crevice HC Mechanism Based on the Transient HC Test Data and the Double Zone Combustion Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1652
The effectiveness of after-treatment systems depends on the exhaust gas temperature, which is low during cold-start. As a result, Euro III, Euro IV and FTP75 require that the emissions tests include exhaust from the beginning of cold start. It is proved that 50%∼80% of HC and CO emissions are emitted during the cold start and the amount of unburned fuel from the crevices during starting is much higher than that under warmed engine conditions. The piston crevices is the most part of combustion chamber crevices, and results of mathematical simulations show that the piston crevice contribution to HC emissions is expected to increase during cold engine operation. Based on the transient HC test data and the double zone combustion model, this paper presents the study of the crevice HC Mechanism of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Self-Balanced Property and Vibration on the Particular Crankshaft System for an Opposed Piston Engine

2016-06-15
2016-01-1768
For an in-line diesel engine with four cylinder operating in four-stroke mode, the second-order reciprocating inertia forces generally cannot be well balanced with direct approach. The unbalanced second-order inertia forces are the main reason to cause vibration and noise in a diesel engine within low frequency range. The more superior tone quality for modern diesel engine has been expected even for bus application all the time, and there are tougher requirements for truck noise in developed countries, i.e. in Europe and USA. In present research a unique crankshaft system configuration was proposed, which including opposed piston, inner and outer connecting rod, and crankshaft but running in two-stroke mode, to eliminate the second-order inertia force considerably rather than by adding an extra balance shaft mechanism.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion Optimization Control Strategy for Stable Operation of Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System

2016-06-17
2016-01-9144
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system (LICELGIS) is an innovative structure as a range-extender for the hybrid vehicles, which contains two opposed free piston engines and one linear generator between them. The LICELGIS is a promising power package due to its high power density and multi-fuel flexibility. In the combustion process of linear engines, the top dead center (TDC) position is not stable in different cycles, which significantly affects system operations. Otherwise, pistons move away from the TDC with high-speed because of the tremendous explosive force, which incurs the short residence time of pistons around the TDC and rapid decrease of in-cylinder temperature, pressure and the combustion efficiency. In order to address this problem, a scientific simulation model which includes dynamic and thermodynamic models, is established and a combustion optimization control strategy is proposed.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Water Injection Timing on Common Rail Diesel Engine Combustion Process and Efficiency Enhancement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2281
The present work aims at optimizing diesel engine combustion efficiency with optimized water injection strategy. The engine had been modified based on a two-cylinder mechanical pump diesel engine into common rail diesel engine with capability of direct water injection. The direct water injection system was designed and manufactured independently. An air-fluid booster was utilized to establish the water injection pressure up to 40MPa. Customized diesel injector was selected to be used as water injector in this study. Water injection strategy was optimized in detail with injection timing around TDC which ranges from 12°CA BTDC to -5°CA BTDC under 10 bar IMEP. The engine efficiency can be improved under selected water injection strategy due to the increment of work fluid in the combustion chamber. Moreover, the nitric oxides emissions show decrement around 10%.
Technical Paper

One New Transient Transfer Path Analyses of Vehicle Interior Vibration Excited by Vertical Speed Hump

2018-04-03
2018-01-0687
Vertical excitations from obstacles on public road are typical and likely to increase vehicle interior vibration through major paths of wheel spindle-suspension-body. A new transient transfer path analysis (TTPA) methodology is presented combining the substructure reverse matrix method based on FRFs with operational excitation. Additionally, a new kind of experimental method is applied to solve an engineering problem and also validates the TTPA theory above. There are three steps in all. Firstly, vibration in Z direction of wheel spindle was collected in one proving ground and represented on MTS 320 road simulator bench after many times of iteration of piston signals. This procedure guarantees excitation decoupling in one certain direction so it leads to accurate frequency response functions (FRFs) under transient shocking excitation. Secondly, the new transient transfer path analysis approach was used to calculate vibration contribution of wheel-suspension-body.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0581
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
Technical Paper

A Lumped Parameter Model Concerning the Amplitude-Dependent Characteristics for the Hydraulic Engine Mount with a Suspended Decoupler

2019-04-02
2019-01-0936
This paper presents a novel lumped parameter model(LPM) and its parameter identification method for the hydraulic engine mount(HEM) with a suspended decoupler. In the new model the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness caused by being contact with the metallic cage is considered. Therefore, the decoupler membrane in the model can be taken as a spring. As a result, two parameters of the decoupler’s variable stiffness and the equivalent piston area are added. Then the finite element method is employed to analyze the suspended decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness characteristics under the contact state with the metallic cage. A piecewise polynomial is used to fit the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness. To guarantee the symmetry of the stiffness, the polynomial only keeps the odd power coefficients.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Auto-Ignition for Lubricants and Lubricant/Gasoline Based on an Innovative Single Droplet Test System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1428
Due to the advantages of low weight, low emissions and good fuel economy, downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are widely-applied nowadays. However, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) phenomenon observed in these engines restricts their improvement of performance. Some researchers have shown that auto-ignition of lubricant in the combustion chamber has a great effect on the LSPI frequency. To study the auto-ignition characteristics of lubricant, an innovative single droplet auto-ignition test system for lubricant and its mixture is designed and developed, with better accuracy and effectiveness. The experiments are carried out by hanging lubricant droplets on the thermocouple node under active thermo-atmosphere provided by a small “Dibble burner”. The auto-ignition process of lubricant droplets is recorded by a high-speed camera.
Technical Paper

Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation and Fatigue Analysis of the Unique Crank - train for a Creative Two-stoke Opposed Piston Diesel Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2332
For an innovative opposed-piston diesel engine (OPE) with two-stroke operation mode, it attracted even more attentions than ever in some developed countries all around the world, attributed to the unique advantages of higher power density that conducive to downsize IC engine, as well as the potential of further reducing fuel consumption for outstanding thermal efficiency. To achieve fast practical application and ensure the feasibility in concept design stage, the performance characteristic of OPE crankshaft system was investigated, and thus a theoretical analytic model of crankshaft system in an OP2S (Opposed-piston two stroke) engine was established. The effects of all structural design variables on averaged output torque of OPE crankshaft were analyzed, respectively. It was found that the initial crank angle difference between inner crank web and outer crank web was considered as a most critical contributor to boost the averaged torque output than other design variables.
Journal Article

Study of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Coupled with Oxy-Fuel Combustion Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-0649
The present work proposed to implement oxy-fuel combustion mode into a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to reduce complexity in engine emissions after-treatment and lower carbon dioxide emission. The combination of oxy-fuel combustion mode with homogeneous charge compression ignition engine can be further optimized by the utilization of direct high temperature and pressure water injection to improve cycle performance. A retrofitted conventional diesel engine coupled with port fuel injection and direct water injection is utilized in this study. A self-designed oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture intake system with flexible oxygen fraction adjustment ability is implemented in the test bench to simulate the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation. Water injection system is directly installed in the combustion chamber with a modified high speed solenoid diesel injector.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Surface Temperature Fluctuation and Thermal Barrier Coating at the Piston Top for a Diesel Engine Performance Improvement

2021-04-06
2021-01-0229
Low heat rejection (LHR) combustion has been recognized as a potential technology for further fuel economy improvement. This paper aims to simulate how the piston top's thermal barrier coating affects the engine's thermal efficiency and emissions. Accordingly, a Thin-wall heat transfer model in AVL Fire software was employed. The effects of increasing the piston top surface temperature, comparing different thermal barrier coating material, were simulated at the engine's rated power operating point, so as the piston top's surface roughness. In comparison to a standard diesel engine, the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could increase by 0.4% when the surface temperature of the piston top changed from 575K to 775K.
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