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Technical Paper

Study of Stability Control for Electric Vehicles with Active Control Differential

2013-04-08
2013-01-0715
This article conducts a research on the active control differential (ACD) yaw moment stability control for central motor driven automobiles. By calculation, the active control differential yaw moment generation ability which is limited by the maximum differential twist ratio and the motor output torque is not enough compared with traditional Electronic Stability Program (ESP). A Matlab and CarSim joint simulation is applied on double lane change and sine wave steering input condition, through which the active control differential effect is analyzed. It is concluded that yaw moment control using active control differential has improved the steering sensitivity and yaw rate tracking effect to some extent in double lane change test and it also has been verified that it works effectively to keep the stability of the vehicle in sine wave test.
Technical Paper

An Anti-Lock Braking Control Strategy for 4WD Electric Vehicle Based on Variable Structure Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0717
Based on the four-wheel-drive electric vehicle (4WD EV), a variable structure control (VSC) strategy is designed in this paper for the anti-lock braking control. With nonpeak friction coefficient as target, sign judgment method of switch function in this VSC strategy is improved and a new control algorithm is proposed. The improved VSC strategy is made robust to the parameters of the algorithm and verified by the computer simulation as well as the hard-in-loop test. The results show that the slip rate can be controlled to a point in the stable area near the optimal slip ratio and the control strategy can effectively realize the anti-lock braking control.
Journal Article

Combination of Test with Simulation Analysis of Brake Groan Phenomenon

2014-04-01
2014-01-0869
During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features.
Journal Article

Statistical Analysis of Impacts of Surface Topography on Brake Squeal in Disc-Pad System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0027
A disc-pad system is established to study impacts of surface topography on brake squeal from the perspective of statistical analysis. Firstly, surface topographies of brake disc and pad are precisely measured on the scale of micron and are statistically analyzed with a three-dimensional evaluation system. Secondly, the finite element model of brake disc and pad without surface topographies is created and verified through component free modal tests. Thereby the valid brake squeal model for complex modal analysis is built with ABAQUS. An effective method is developed to apply interface topographies to the smooth contact model, which consequently establishes sixty brake squeal models with topographies. Thirdly, impacts of surface topography on brake squeal are studied through comparison and statistical analysis of prediction results with and without topographies.
Technical Paper

Development of Composite Brake Pedal Stroke Simulator for Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0117
A brake pedal stroke simulator for Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHBS) was developed to ensure the comfort braking pedal feel for the brake-by-wire system. An EHBS with an integrated master cylinder was proposed, and a composite brake pedal stroke simulator was designed for the EHBS, which was comprised of two inline springs and a third parallel one. A normally closed solenoid valve was used to connect the master cylinder booster chamber and the stroke simulator. The suitable brake pedal stroke was achieved by three stages of these springs' compression, whereas the solenoid valve was shutdown to enable mechanical control of the service brakes when electrical faults appeared.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder Induced Steering Wheel Vibration: Experiment, Simulation and Analysis

2007-10-07
2007-01-3966
The prevention and control of brake judder and its various negative effects has been a key target of vehicle production. One of the effects is the steering wheel vibration during vehicle braking. Experimental and theoretical investigation into “steering wheel vibration due to brake judder” is extensively presented in this paper. The vehicle road test is carried out under controlled braking conditions. During the test, the accelerations of brake caliper assembly, suspension low and upper control arm, steering arm, tie rod and steering wheel, left and right wheel rotary speed, are measured by a multi-channel data acquisition system. The data processing focuses on order tracking analysis and transfer path analysis to work out the related resonant components. A disc brake assembly, with deliberately designed disc thickness variation and surface run-out combinations, is tested on a brake dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Brake Noise Mechanism Incorporating Nonlinear Effects and Complex Eigenvalue Extraction

2008-10-12
2008-01-2535
Numerical simulation of instabilities of brake systems based on complex mode analysis is presented in this paper. The theoretical analysis shows that the friction-induced unsymmetrical system stiffness matrix results in instability, and nonlinear static analysis plays a key role in the overall analysis. The frictional study shows how unstable mode occurs, in addition to that the nonlinear effects are taken into considerations and the one variable regression function is employed to set up the relative predict functions.
Technical Paper

Novel Electromechanical Brake Actuator Adopting the Two Way Ball Screw

2015-09-27
2015-01-2698
In this paper, a novel Electromechanical Brake actuator (EMB) is redesigned aimed at an electric vehicle driven by wheel hub motor. The two way ball screw is adopted in this mechanism. Clearance automatic adjustment and parking braking function is added in this mechanism. As a consequence, fast braking response is achieved and the wear difference of the inner and outer pads can be minimized and the initial braking force can also be improved. The electric vehicle is based on a traditional chassis. In this electric vehicle which driven by wheel hub motor, the brake disc and brake actuator will be correspondingly moved inside because wheel hub motor will take up inner space of wheel hub. As a result, the actuator might interfere with the suspension and steering systems and influence hard spot of chassis design. To solve this problem, conversely installed caliper concept is used in this paper.
Technical Paper

Study on the Braking Torque Allocation of the ABS Based on the Frequency of the Electro-Hydraulic Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2703
Study on the braking torque allocation of the ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) of the electro-hydraulic brake system in the distributed drive electric vehicles, using a hierarchical control structure, of which the lower controller takes a braking torque allocation strategy based on frequency, so as to achieve a good braking effect. The lower controller uses the strategies which are based on the filter principle or the weighted least squares algorithm. To the former, Butterworth filter is selected to execute the braking torque allocation. Then the ABS braking torque allocation strategy based on Butterworth filter and the weighted least squares are designed and analyzed respectively, finally their braking effects are simulated and contrasted in Simulink and AMESim.
Technical Paper

Control of Novel Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Automotive

2015-09-27
2015-01-2699
With the electrification and intelligentialization of vehicle, requirements on more intelligent and integrated brake system are put forward. A novel integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill these requirements. I-EHB is consisted of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). The system characteristics of I-EHB are tested through test rig. According to characteristics experiments, friction and non-linear phenomena in hydraulic pressure control are found. In order to overcome these phenomena in control of I-EHB, chatter-compensation is adopted based on experiment analysis. Algorithm are tested and optimized through test rig. As a result, through chatter-compensation the hydraulic pressure is controlled accurately and chatter-compensation is optimized for different working conditions.
Technical Paper

Influences of Pad Backplate on Thermo-Mechnical Coupling in Disc Brake

2016-04-05
2016-01-1354
The transient thermo-mechanical coupling dynamic model of ventilated disc brake with asymmetrical outer and inner thickness was established by means of Msc-marc software. In the model, pad backplate is simplified as a rigid surface with the same shape of brake lining and is bonded together with brake lining. Control node is associated with the rigid surface and the equivalent force that replaces the pressure is applied on the control nodes, of which the degrees of freedom in radial and rotational directions are constrained. With distribution characteristics of disc temperature field, normal stress field and lateral thermo-elastic deformation and thickness for the evaluation, the impacts of brake pad constraints on brake thermomechanical coupling characteristics were analyzed. The simulation results show that the brake pad back plate is an important structure in brake thermo-mechanical coupling analysis, which can’t be ignored in simulation computing.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder Analysis Based on the Rigid-Flexible Coupling Model of Brake Corner

2016-09-18
2016-01-1933
Brake judder severely affects the riding comfort and safety of vehicle. For the brake corner system, a rigid-flexible coupling model is established based on ADAMS. In the model, brake pads, caliper, anchor and knuckle are flexible bodies, and the contacts between pads and disc and the contacts between pads and caliper are defined in detail. Meanwhile, the vibration acceleration of the brake corner components and the contact forces between disc and pads are used as evaluation index and the evaluation system of brake judder are improved. The analysis results show that the novel model and evaluation system can be used to predict brake judder effectively.
Technical Paper

Combination of Front Steering and Differential Braking Control for the Path Tracking of Autonomous Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1627
In order to improve the robustness and stability of autonomous vehicle at high speed, a path tracking approach which combines front steering and differential braking is investigated in this paper. A bicycle model with 3-DOFs is established and a linear time-varying predictive model using front steering as its control input can be derived. Based on model predictive theory, the path tracking issue using linear time-varying model predictive control can be transformed into an online quadratic programming problem with constraints. The expected front steering angle can be obtained from online moving optimization. Then the direct yawing control is adopted to treat two types of differential braking control. The first one investigates steady-state gain of yaw rate in linear 2-DOFs vehicle model, and designs a stable differential braking controller which is based on reference yaw rate.
Journal Article

The Influences of the Subframe Flexibility on Handling and Stability Simulation When Using ADAMS/Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1637
To analyze the K&C (kinematics and compliance), handling and stability performance of the vehicle chassis, some simulations are usually performed using a multi-body dynamics software named ADAMS. This software introduces assumptions that simplify the components of the suspension as rigid bodies. However, these assumptions weaken the accuracy of the simulation of ADAMS. Therefore the use of flexible bodies in K&C and handling and stability simulation in ADAMS is needed to conduct more precise suspension system designs. This paper mainly analyses the influences of the subframe flexibility on handling and stability simulation in ADAMS/Car. Two complete vehicle models are built using ADAMS/Car and Hypermesh. The only difference between the two models is the subframe of the front McPherson suspension. One of the subframes is simplified as a rigid body. The other one is a flexible body built using the MNF file from Hypermesh.
Technical Paper

An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Active Safety

2016-04-05
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Because I-EHB can control the brake pressure accurately and fast. Furthermore I-EHB is a decoupled system, so it could make the maximum regenerative braking while offers the same brake pedal feeling and also good for ADAS and unmanned driving application. Based on the analysis of current electrohydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System based on Command Feed-Forward

2016-04-05
2016-01-1658
With the development of vehicle electrification, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system (I-EHB). In this paper, an I-EHB system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB. Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out. The feed-forward controller is applied, including the velocity feed-forward and the acceleration feed-forward, to improve the response speed and tracking effect of the system.
Technical Paper

Design and Research of Micro EV Driven by In-Wheel Motors on Rear Axle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1950
As is known to all, the structure of the chassis has been greatly simplified as the application of in-wheel motor in electric vehicle (EV) and distributed control is allowed. The micro EV can alleviate traffic jams, reduce the demand for motor and battery capacity due to its small size and light weight and accordingly solve the problem that in-wheel motor is limited by inner space of the wheel hub. As a result, this type of micro EV is easier to be recognized by the market. In the micro EV above, two seats are side by side and the battery is placed in the middle of the chassis. Besides, in-wheel motors are mounted on the rear axle and only front axle retains traditional hydraulic braking system. Based on this driving/braking system, distribution of braking torque, system reliability and braking intensity is analyzed in this paper.
Journal Article

A Study on the Bench Test of Friction-Induced Hot Spots in Disc Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2694
During light to moderate braking at high speed, the local high temperature phenomenon can be observed on the brake disc surfaces, known as hot spots. The occurrence of hot spots will lead to negative effects such as brake performance fade, thermal judder and local wear, which seriously affect the performance of vehicle NVH. In this paper, based on the bench test of a ventilated disc brake, the basic characteristics of hot spots is obtained and the evolution process of temperature field and disc deformation is analyzed in detail. In temperature field, hot bands appear first and grow, migrate from inner and outer radius to the middle, with the growing temperature fluctuation and finally hot spots appear in the middle radius of the brake disc. The stable SRO waviness forms much earlier than the temperature fluctuation. In the stop brake studied in this paper, the SRO waviness stabilizes in main 7 order state which is lower than the final hot spot order.
Technical Paper

Pressure Estimation Algorithms in Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System Considering the Friction and Pressure-Position Relationship

2019-04-02
2019-01-0438
This paper presents several pressure estimation algorithms (PEAs) for a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which is driven by an electric motor + reduction gear. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. Considering the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. disturbance caused by friction model), the estimation-oriented model is established. The LuGre model is selected to describe the friction, and the pressure-position relationship is fitted by a quadratic polynomial.
Technical Paper

Optimal Regenerative Braking Control for 4WD Electric Vehicles with Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1117
Regenerative braking control for a four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicle (EV) equipped with a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system was studied. The energy flow of the 4WD electric vehicle was analyzed during braking, and the brake force distribution strategy between the front-rear axles, regenerative braking and hydraulic braking was studied. Considering ECE R13 regulations, motors and battery pack characteristic constraints, the optimal regenerative braking control strategy using Genetic Algorithm (GA) was proposed. A Hardware-in-loop (HIL) test was built to verify the proposed regenerative braking control strategy. The results show that the optimal regenerative braking control strategy for the 4WD electric vehicle was advantageous over the comparison program, and regenerative energy efficiency reaches 78.87% under the Shanghai Urban Driving Cycle (SUDC).
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