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Technical Paper

Study of Stability Control for Electric Vehicles with Active Control Differential

2013-04-08
2013-01-0715
This article conducts a research on the active control differential (ACD) yaw moment stability control for central motor driven automobiles. By calculation, the active control differential yaw moment generation ability which is limited by the maximum differential twist ratio and the motor output torque is not enough compared with traditional Electronic Stability Program (ESP). A Matlab and CarSim joint simulation is applied on double lane change and sine wave steering input condition, through which the active control differential effect is analyzed. It is concluded that yaw moment control using active control differential has improved the steering sensitivity and yaw rate tracking effect to some extent in double lane change test and it also has been verified that it works effectively to keep the stability of the vehicle in sine wave test.
Technical Paper

An Anti-Lock Braking Control Strategy for 4WD Electric Vehicle Based on Variable Structure Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0717
Based on the four-wheel-drive electric vehicle (4WD EV), a variable structure control (VSC) strategy is designed in this paper for the anti-lock braking control. With nonpeak friction coefficient as target, sign judgment method of switch function in this VSC strategy is improved and a new control algorithm is proposed. The improved VSC strategy is made robust to the parameters of the algorithm and verified by the computer simulation as well as the hard-in-loop test. The results show that the slip rate can be controlled to a point in the stable area near the optimal slip ratio and the control strategy can effectively realize the anti-lock braking control.
Journal Article

Optimal Design of On-Center Steering Force Characteristic Based on Correlations between Subjective and Objective Evaluations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0137
To overcome the shortcomings of subjective evaluation, there have been several studies to examine the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations of on-center steering feel, and some useful results are obtained. However, it is still not clear how to design the steering characteristic based on the correlations. In this paper, we propose a methodology of identifying the optimal on-center steering force characteristic based on the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations. Firstly, significant correlations between subjective and objective evaluations regarding on-center steering feel are established and verified. These verified correlations are then used to design the steering force characteristic. With desired ratings of the subjective evaluation items set as optimization goals, the ideal values of objective evaluation indices are obtained by use of an optimal design method.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder Induced Steering Wheel Vibration: Experiment, Simulation and Analysis

2007-10-07
2007-01-3966
The prevention and control of brake judder and its various negative effects has been a key target of vehicle production. One of the effects is the steering wheel vibration during vehicle braking. Experimental and theoretical investigation into “steering wheel vibration due to brake judder” is extensively presented in this paper. The vehicle road test is carried out under controlled braking conditions. During the test, the accelerations of brake caliper assembly, suspension low and upper control arm, steering arm, tie rod and steering wheel, left and right wheel rotary speed, are measured by a multi-channel data acquisition system. The data processing focuses on order tracking analysis and transfer path analysis to work out the related resonant components. A disc brake assembly, with deliberately designed disc thickness variation and surface run-out combinations, is tested on a brake dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Study on EP Energy-Saving Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1775
The price of fossil fuels and the increasing inexorable energy crisis have become vital issues for everyone. Tongji University EconoPower Racing Team was established to participate in the “Honda EconoPower Cup” annually. Every contestant in the competition must finish a certain distance in the fixed time, with the gasoline supplied by the committee. After that the committee will measure the fuel consumption of every team and calculate the distance per liter fuel (the farther the better) to determine the champion. In order to enhance the EP vehicle's achievement we've made some improvements, such as framework, body, engine's optimization and so on. In this passage we mainly state some details of our research approaches in framework, steering, transmission, shape and driving strategy. The main technologies were: friction reduction, lightweight, enhancement of power train efficiency, tire selection and driving strategy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Braking Torque Allocation of the ABS Based on the Frequency of the Electro-Hydraulic Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2703
Study on the braking torque allocation of the ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) of the electro-hydraulic brake system in the distributed drive electric vehicles, using a hierarchical control structure, of which the lower controller takes a braking torque allocation strategy based on frequency, so as to achieve a good braking effect. The lower controller uses the strategies which are based on the filter principle or the weighted least squares algorithm. To the former, Butterworth filter is selected to execute the braking torque allocation. Then the ABS braking torque allocation strategy based on Butterworth filter and the weighted least squares are designed and analyzed respectively, finally their braking effects are simulated and contrasted in Simulink and AMESim.
Technical Paper

An ADAS-Oriented Virtual EPS Platform Based on the Force Feedback Actuator of the Steer-by-Wire System

2016-09-14
2016-01-1905
Electric Power Steering (EPS) is the actuator of several lateral-dynamic-related Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A driving simulator with EPS will be much helpful for the ADAS development. However, if a real EPS is used in the driving simulator, it is quite difficult to realize the road reaction force accurately and responsively. To overcome this weakness, a virtual EPS platform is established. The virtual EPS platform contains two parts: one is the vehicle and EPS model, the other is the force feedback actuator (FFA) of the Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. The FFA is an interface between the driver and the EPS/vehicle model. The reactive torque of the FFA is obtained based on the models. Meanwhile, the input of the EPS model is the steering angle of the FFA. Comparing to a real EPS, the virtual EPS platform has a problem of instability because of the actuator lag of the FFA. Therefore, a damping control method is applied to make the system stable.
Journal Article

The Influences of the Subframe Flexibility on Handling and Stability Simulation When Using ADAMS/Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1637
To analyze the K&C (kinematics and compliance), handling and stability performance of the vehicle chassis, some simulations are usually performed using a multi-body dynamics software named ADAMS. This software introduces assumptions that simplify the components of the suspension as rigid bodies. However, these assumptions weaken the accuracy of the simulation of ADAMS. Therefore the use of flexible bodies in K&C and handling and stability simulation in ADAMS is needed to conduct more precise suspension system designs. This paper mainly analyses the influences of the subframe flexibility on handling and stability simulation in ADAMS/Car. Two complete vehicle models are built using ADAMS/Car and Hypermesh. The only difference between the two models is the subframe of the front McPherson suspension. One of the subframes is simplified as a rigid body. The other one is a flexible body built using the MNF file from Hypermesh.
Technical Paper

An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Active Safety

2016-04-05
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Because I-EHB can control the brake pressure accurately and fast. Furthermore I-EHB is a decoupled system, so it could make the maximum regenerative braking while offers the same brake pedal feeling and also good for ADAS and unmanned driving application. Based on the analysis of current electrohydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System based on Command Feed-Forward

2016-04-05
2016-01-1658
With the development of vehicle electrification, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system (I-EHB). In this paper, an I-EHB system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB. Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out. The feed-forward controller is applied, including the velocity feed-forward and the acceleration feed-forward, to improve the response speed and tracking effect of the system.
Journal Article

A Potential Field Based Lateral Planning Method for Autonomous Vehicles

2016-09-14
2016-01-1874
As one of the key technologies in autonomous driving, the lateral planning module guides the lateral movement during the driving process. An integrated lateral planning module should consider the non-holonomic constraints of a vehicle, the optimization of the generated trajectory and the applicability to various scenarios. However, the current lateral planning methods can only meet parts of these requirements. In order to satisfy all the performance requirements above, a novel Potential Field (PF) based lateral planning method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is built to describe the potential risk of the traffic entities, including the obstacles, road boundaries and lines. The potential fields of these traffic entities are determined by their properties and the traffic regulations. Secondly, the planning algorithm is presented, which comprises three modules: state prediction, state search and trajectory generation.
Technical Paper

Research on a New Electromagnetic Valve Actuator Based on Voice Coil Motor for Automobile Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-1070
The electromagnetic valve actuator (EMVA) is considered a technological solution for decoupling between crankshaft and camshaft to improve engine performance, emissions, and fuel efficiency. Conventional EMVA consists of two electromagnets, an armature, and two springs has been proved to have the drawbacks of fixed lift, impact noise, complex control method and large power consumption. This paper proposes a new type of EMVA that uses voice coil motor (VCM) as electromagnetic valve actuator. This new camless valvetrain (VEMA) is characterized by simple structure, flexible controllable and low actuating power. VCM provides an almost flat force versus stroke curve that is very useful for high precision trajectory control to achieve soft landing within simple control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Optimal Regenerative Braking Control for 4WD Electric Vehicles with Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1117
Regenerative braking control for a four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicle (EV) equipped with a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system was studied. The energy flow of the 4WD electric vehicle was analyzed during braking, and the brake force distribution strategy between the front-rear axles, regenerative braking and hydraulic braking was studied. Considering ECE R13 regulations, motors and battery pack characteristic constraints, the optimal regenerative braking control strategy using Genetic Algorithm (GA) was proposed. A Hardware-in-loop (HIL) test was built to verify the proposed regenerative braking control strategy. The results show that the optimal regenerative braking control strategy for the 4WD electric vehicle was advantageous over the comparison program, and regenerative energy efficiency reaches 78.87% under the Shanghai Urban Driving Cycle (SUDC).
Technical Paper

A Control Allocation Strategy for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors and Hydraulic Brake System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1600
Distributed drive electric vehicle (EV) is driven by four independent hub motors mounted directly in wheels and retains traditional hydraulic brake system. So it can quickly produce driving/braking motor torque and large stable hydraulic braking force. In this paper a new control allocation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicle is proposed to improve vehicle's lateral stability performance. It exploits the quick response of motor torque and controllable hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic brake system. The allocation strategy consists of two sections. The first section uses an optimal allocation controller to calculate the total longitudinal force of each wheel. In the controller, a dynamic efficiency matrix is designed via local linearization to improve lateral stability control performance, as it considers the influence of tire coupling characteristics over yaw moment control in extreme situations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Criterion Research Based on Phase Plane Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-1560
In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish the vehicle yaw stability criterion based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate (β-r) phase plane method. First, nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle analysis model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, according to the model in the Matlab/Simulink environment, the β-r phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (front wheels steering angle, road adhesion coefficient and speed) on the stability boundaries of the phase plane are analyzed. Through a large number of simulation analysis, results show that there are two types of phase plane: curve stability region and diamond stability region, and the judgment method of the vehicle stability domain type under different driving conditions is solved.
Technical Paper

Driver Lane Keeping Characteristic Indices for Personalized Lane Keeping Assistance System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1982
In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior. The other reason is that the researches on driver lane keeping behavior only provide model structure and rarely discuss identification procedure such as how to select suitable data.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System Based on LuGre Friction Model

2017-09-17
2017-01-2513
In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake(I-EHB) system is introduced, which is mainly composed of a motor, a worm gear, a worm, a gear, a rack etc. The friction leads the system to the creeping phenomenon and the dead zone. These phenomenon seriously affect the response speed and the hydraulic pressure control .In order to realize the accurate hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB system, a new friction compensation control method is proposed based on LuGre dynamic friction model. And the theoretical design of adaptive control method is designed based on the feedback of the master cylinder pressure and the operating state of the system. Then the stability of the control method is proved by Lyapunov theorem. A co-simulation model is built with Matlab/Simulink and AMESim, so as to prove the validity of the control method.
Journal Article

Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design on An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1578
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque. In contrast, regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
Journal Article

Robust Control of a Four-Wheel-Independent-Steering Electric Vehicle for Path Tracking

2017-03-28
2017-01-1584
Compared with the traditional front-wheel- steering (FWS) vehicles, four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) vehicles have better handing stability and path-tracking performance. In view of this, a novel 4WIS electric vehicle (EV) with steer-by-wire (SBW) system is proposed in this paper. As to the 4WIS EV, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal controller is designed to make the vehicle track the target path based on the linear dynamic model. Taking the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters into consideration, a robust controller utilizing μ synthesis approach is designed and the controller order reduction is implemented based on Hankel-Norm approximation. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed controllers, numerical simulations of two maneuvers are carried out using the nonlinear vehicle model with 9 degrees of freedom (DOF) in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Path-Tracking Controller Design for a 4WIS and 4WID Electric Vehicle with Steer-by-Wire System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1954
Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances. As to the path-tracking controller design, an integrated four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) system is designed based on the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to track the target path described by desired yaw angle and lateral displacement. Then, the fast terminal sliding mode controller (FTSMC) is proposed for the SBW system to suppress disturbances.
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