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Journal Article

Investigation on Dynamic Recovery Behavior of Boron Steel 22MnB5 under Austenite State at Elevated Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1057
Hot forming process of ultrahigh strength boron steel 22MnB5 is widely applied in vehicle industry. It is one of the most effective approaches for vehicle light weighting. Dynamic recovery is the major softening mechanism of the boron steel under austenite state at elevated temperatures. Deformation mechanism of the boron steel can be revealed by investigation on the behavior of dynamic recovery, which could also improve the accuracy of forming simulations for hot stamping. Uniaxial tensile experiments of the boron steel are carried out on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble3800 at elevated temperatures. The true stress-strain curves and the relations between the work hardening rate and flow stress are obtained in different deformation conditions. The work hardening rate decreases linearly with increasing the flow stress.
Technical Paper

Vibration Characteristic Analysis and Optimization of the Rear Suspension of Eccentrical Motor Driven Electric Vehicle

2013-03-25
2013-01-0088
To wheel driven electric vehicle, besides road unevenness excitation, the electric motor torque fluctuation has great effects on the whole body vibration (WBV) according to prior research.[1],[2] To evaluate and further reduce the influence of torque fluctuation on the whole body vibration (WBV), vibration characteristic of rear suspension is analyzed thoroughly and finally optimized in this paper. Firstly, based on an existing eccentrical motor driven electric vehicle, a rear twist beam suspension suitable for high frequency analysis is modeled in Adams/View. Secondly, the vibration characteristic is simulated using Adams/Vibration module and verified with natural modal parameters of system. Finally, the vibration characteristic is optimized by adjusting the parameters of bushings using DOE method and proven to be effective to reduce WBV caused by torque fluctuation.
Journal Article

Combination of Test with Simulation Analysis of Brake Groan Phenomenon

2014-04-01
2014-01-0869
During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features.
Technical Paper

Development of Composite Brake Pedal Stroke Simulator for Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0117
A brake pedal stroke simulator for Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHBS) was developed to ensure the comfort braking pedal feel for the brake-by-wire system. An EHBS with an integrated master cylinder was proposed, and a composite brake pedal stroke simulator was designed for the EHBS, which was comprised of two inline springs and a third parallel one. A normally closed solenoid valve was used to connect the master cylinder booster chamber and the stroke simulator. The suitable brake pedal stroke was achieved by three stages of these springs' compression, whereas the solenoid valve was shutdown to enable mechanical control of the service brakes when electrical faults appeared.
Journal Article

Analysis of Friction Induced Stability, Bifurcation, Chaos, Stick-slip Vibration and their Impacts on Wiping Effect of Automotive Wiper System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0021
A 2 DOF nonlinear dynamic model of the automotive wiper system is established. Complex eigenvalues are calculated based on the complex modal theory, and the system stability as well as its dependence on wiping velocity is analyzed. Bifurcation characteristics of frictional self-excited vibration and stick-slip vibration relative to wiping velocity are studied through numerical analysis. Research of nonlinear vibration characteristics under various wiping velocities is conducted by means of phase trajectories, Poincaré map and frequency spectrum. The pervasive stick-slip vibration during wiping is confirmed, and its temporal and spatial distributions are analyzed by way of time history and contour map. Duty ratio of stick vibration and statistics of scraping residual are introduced as quantitative indexes for wiping effect evaluation. Results indicate that the negative slop of frictional-velocity characteristic is the root cause of system instability.
Technical Paper

Elementary Investigation into Road Simulation Experiment of Powertrain and Components of Fuel Cell Passenger Car

2008-06-23
2008-01-1585
It is very important to investigate how road irregularity excitation will affect the durability, reliability, and performance degradation of fuel cell vehicle powertrain and its key components, including the electric motor, power control unit, power battery package and fuel cell engine system. There are very few published literatures in this research area. In this paper, an elementary but integrated experimental work is described, including the real road load sample on proving ground, road load reproduction on vibration test rig, total vehicle road simulation test and key components vibration tests. Remote parameter control technology is adopted to reproduce the real road load on road simulator and six-degree-of-freedom vibration table, which is used respectively for total vehicle and components vibration tests.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Racing Car Driving Simulator Based on TCP/IP

2009-05-13
2009-01-1609
Real-time interaction between a driver and the simulator is problematic. In this study, the racing car driving simulator has been established, which is composed of the following functional components: Motion Controller, Simview, Scenario Editor, Application Programmer Interface (APIs) and Crash Simulation. With TCP/IP protocol, the Motion Controller receives driver's manipulation, road unevenness and crash situation of Simview, then generates motion streams that reflecting the current conditions, and sends them to Simview and to the hydraulic platform. Furthermore, by detecting and analyzing general vehicle two-dimensional impact, a kind of complete and applicable calculation method has been established, and complicated vehicle impacts can be analyzed accurately. This racecar driving simulator places a racing driver in a interactive environment, and provides the driver with high-fidelity motion, visual, auditory, and force feedback cues.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gear Rattle Noise and Vibration Characteristics Using Relative Approaches

2016-04-05
2016-01-1121
Noise signals of the driver’s right ear include those of engine, environment, chassis dynamometer, loaded gears and unloaded gears when they are recorded in full vehicle on chassis dynamometer in semi-anechoic room. Gear rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear caused by unloaded gear pairs can’t be identified or quantified directly. To solve the problems, relative approaches are used to identify and quantify the gear rattle noise signals. Firstly, the rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear are filtered by human ear characteristic functions and steady noise signals are extracted by regression and smoothing processes. The noise signals are regressed at 200ms interval in the hearing critical frequency bands and smoothed in the flanking frequencies. Then, the noise relative approaches are obtained by subtracting the steady noise signals from the filtered noise signals, which are the transient noise signals of the unloaded gear pairs inducing the rattle noise.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research on Electromagnetic Radiation Effects of Electric Vehicle on the Occupant Health

2016-04-05
2016-01-0135
Nowadays researches of automotive electromagnetic field mainly focus on the component level and electromagnetic compatibility, while there is a lack of relevant studies on internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicles. With the increasingly complex internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicle, people are increasingly concerned about its potential impact of human health. This article researches on a type of electric vehicle and the occupants and analyses its electromagnetic radiation effects on human health. Firstly, considering the characters of Pro/E, Hypermesh and FEKO, the “Characteristics grouping subdivision” method is used to establish the entire vehicle body FE model. According to the requirement of MOM/FEM method, the entire vehicle model is optimized to be a high quality body model with simple construction and moderate grid size.
Technical Paper

Research on the Fatigue Durability Performance of a SUV Rear Axle

2016-04-05
2016-01-0376
The performance of the rear axle plays an important role in the performance of vehicle, and its fatigue durability is an integral part in the vehicle development. Taking a SUV model as the research subject, a new methodology of multi-channel spindle coupled road simulator and fatigue simulation analysis for rear axle assembly was introduced in the paper, aiming to address the fatigue design and its verification for the rear axle in the development phase. Firstly, road loads in the proving ground was collected by arranging proper sensors. Secondly, physical iteration was performed on the multichannel spindle coupled road simulator by taking six component forces at the wheel hub as the target signals. Then, after the time waveform replication of the loads the durability test was conducted. Finally, the validated simulation model was successfully implemented to improve the fatigue life of the axle.
Journal Article

Active Noise Equalization of Vehicle Low Frequency Interior Distraction Level and its Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1303
On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level (DL) as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating members better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five Critical Band Rates (CBRs) from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. These inputs comprise an input vector of BPANN. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on DL is realized based on Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) algorithm that controls the gain coefficients of inputs of trained BPANN.
Technical Paper

Interactive Modes F-ANP Evaluation for In-Vehicle Secondary Tasks

2016-09-14
2016-01-1890
With the development of automotive HMI and mobile internet, many interactive modes are available for drivers to fulfill the in-vehicle secondary tasks, e.g. dialing, volume adjustment, music playing. For driving safety and drivers’ high expectation for HMI, it is urgent to effectively evaluate interactive mode with good efficiency, safety and good user experience for each secondary tasks, e.g. steering wheel buttons, voice control. This study uses a static driving simulation cockpit to provide driving environment, and sets up a high-fidelity driving cockpit based on OKTAL SacnerStudio and three-dimensional modeling technology. The secondary tasks supported by HMI platform are designed by customer demands research. The secondary task test is carried out based on usability test theory, and the influence on driving safety by different interactive modes is analyzed.
Journal Article

Vibro-Impact Analysis of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle and Its Sound Quality Evaluation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0403
Experimental schemes, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and sound quality prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiments, including experiment conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were described in detail. Secondly, through time-frequency analysis, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle noise were identified and vibro-impact of gear rattle occurs in the frequency range of 450~4000Hz on the vehicle idle condition and the creeping condition. Thirdly, based on bandwidth filtering processing of gear rattle noise, subjective assessment experiments by a paired comparison method were carried out.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Self-Balanced Property and Vibration on the Particular Crankshaft System for an Opposed Piston Engine

2016-06-15
2016-01-1768
For an in-line diesel engine with four cylinder operating in four-stroke mode, the second-order reciprocating inertia forces generally cannot be well balanced with direct approach. The unbalanced second-order inertia forces are the main reason to cause vibration and noise in a diesel engine within low frequency range. The more superior tone quality for modern diesel engine has been expected even for bus application all the time, and there are tougher requirements for truck noise in developed countries, i.e. in Europe and USA. In present research a unique crankshaft system configuration was proposed, which including opposed piston, inner and outer connecting rod, and crankshaft but running in two-stroke mode, to eliminate the second-order inertia force considerably rather than by adding an extra balance shaft mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Usability Study on In-Vehicle Gesture Control

2016-09-14
2016-01-1870
Gesture control has been increasingly applied to automotive industry to reduce the distraction caused by in-vehicle interactions to the primary task of driving. The aim of this study is to find out if gestures can reasonably be used to control in-car devices. Since there exists a big cultural difference of gesture between different countries because of its particularity, a set of gestures which support intuitive human-machine interaction in an automotive environment is searched. The results show a gesture dictionary for a variety of on-board functions, which conforms to Chinese drivers’ driving habits. Furthermore, this paper also describes a driving simulator test to evaluate the usability of gesture from different aspects including the effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, memorability and security. Static driving simulator is considered as an excellent environment for the in-car secondary task as its high safety level, repeatability and reliability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road-Induced Vibration on Gas-Tightness of Vehicular Fuel Cell Stack

2016-04-05
2016-01-1186
The vehicular fuel cell stack is unavoidably impacted by the vibration in the real-world usage due to the road unevenness. However, effects of vibration on stacks have yet to be completely understood. In this work, the mechanical integrity and gas-tightness of the stack were investigated through a strengthen road vibration test with a duration of 200 h. The excitation signals applied in the vibration test were simulated by the acceleration of the stack, which were previously measured in a vehicle vibration test. The load signals of the vehicle vibration test were iterated through a road simulator from vehicle acceleration signals which were originally sampled in the proving ground. Frequency sweep test was conducted before and after the vibration test. During the vibration test, mechanical structure inspection and pressure maintaining test of the stack were conducted at regular intervals.
Journal Article

A Study on the Bench Test of Friction-Induced Hot Spots in Disc Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2694
During light to moderate braking at high speed, the local high temperature phenomenon can be observed on the brake disc surfaces, known as hot spots. The occurrence of hot spots will lead to negative effects such as brake performance fade, thermal judder and local wear, which seriously affect the performance of vehicle NVH. In this paper, based on the bench test of a ventilated disc brake, the basic characteristics of hot spots is obtained and the evolution process of temperature field and disc deformation is analyzed in detail. In temperature field, hot bands appear first and grow, migrate from inner and outer radius to the middle, with the growing temperature fluctuation and finally hot spots appear in the middle radius of the brake disc. The stable SRO waviness forms much earlier than the temperature fluctuation. In the stop brake studied in this paper, the SRO waviness stabilizes in main 7 order state which is lower than the final hot spot order.
Technical Paper

Research on the Model of Safety Boundary Condition Based on Vehicle Intersection Conflict and Collision

2019-04-02
2019-01-0132
Because of the high frequency and serious consequences of traffic accidents in the intersection area, it is of great significance to study the vehicle conflict and collision scenarios of the intersection area. Due to few actual crash accidents occurring in naturalistic driving studies data or field operational tests data, the data of traffic accident database should be also used to analyze the intersection conflict and collision. According to the China Field Operation Test (China-FOT) database and the China in Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database, the distribution feature of the respective intersection scenario type is obtained from the data analysis. Based on the intersection scenario type, two characters of intersection conflict and collision, the environmental character and the vehicle dynamic character, are used to analyze for the integration process of intersection conflict and collision.
Journal Article

Influence Mechanism of Electromechanical Parameters on Transient Vibration of Electric Wheel System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0462
Electric wheel systems of in-wheel motor driven vehicles consist of the motor controller, in-wheel motor and tire-suspension assembly. The coupling between the electromagnetic excitation and elastic structure gives rise to electromechanical dynamic issues. As for the structural layout of the electric wheel system, the driving motor is directly connected to the wheel without torsion dampers or transmission in the driveline, thus making the electric wheel structure a weak damping system. Moreover, the driving torque of electric wheel can change rapidly in various conditions of vehicle. As a result, the transient vibration problem becomes one of the key electromechanical dynamic issues in the electric wheel system. To investigate this problem, the electromechanical coupling model of the electric wheel system is established first. Then the transient responses of the electric wheel under abrupt changes of the driving torque are simulated.
Technical Paper

Transfer Path Analysis and Low-Frequency Vibration Reduction by Locally Resonant Phononic Crystal

2019-04-02
2019-01-0786
The motor has vibration characteristics of order and multi-band in the frequency domain, which is different from the internal combustion engine when it is used as the vehicle’s drive. These characteristics cannot be briefly attenuated by general methods, but make the phononic crystal (PC) an ideal solution to eliminate the vibration transmission of the motor, because the concentrated vibration peak can easily be blocked by the bandgap. In this paper, one dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal (LRPC) which has low-frequency bandgaps are arranged on the automotive subframe to absorbing vibration. The partial coherence analysis is used to analyze the transfer characteristic of vibration on the subframe. Then, 6 main paths are selected from the 18 vibration transmission paths, based on its high ratio of partial coherence coefficient in a certain frequency, and the arranged position, the spring stiffness and the resonator’s mass of the LRPCs are chosen based on this result.
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