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Journal Article

Combination of Test with Simulation Analysis of Brake Groan Phenomenon

During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Contact Force and Frictional Squeal in Pin-on-Disc System

A pin-on-disc system was established to study the generation mechanism and key impact factors of relationship between dynamic contact force and frictional squeal. Through the frictional squeal rig test, both intermittent and continuous squeals were produced repetitively. During the rig test frictional squeal, contact forces and acceleration of the pin end were sampled under various speed and loading force conditions, and the wavelet analysis, time-frequency analysis and feed-in energy calculation methods were used to investigate the relationship between dynamic contact force and frictional squeal. It was found that the frictional squeal would not appear unless the normal force was large enough, and the intermittent squeal would turn to continuous squeal with the quasi static part of normal force increasing to a limiting value, and vice versa. The mode coupling characteristic was discovered obviously when the frictional squeal appeared.
Journal Article

Statistical Analysis of Impacts of Surface Topography on Brake Squeal in Disc-Pad System

A disc-pad system is established to study impacts of surface topography on brake squeal from the perspective of statistical analysis. Firstly, surface topographies of brake disc and pad are precisely measured on the scale of micron and are statistically analyzed with a three-dimensional evaluation system. Secondly, the finite element model of brake disc and pad without surface topographies is created and verified through component free modal tests. Thereby the valid brake squeal model for complex modal analysis is built with ABAQUS. An effective method is developed to apply interface topographies to the smooth contact model, which consequently establishes sixty brake squeal models with topographies. Thirdly, impacts of surface topography on brake squeal are studied through comparison and statistical analysis of prediction results with and without topographies.
Technical Paper

Subjective and Objective Evaluation of APU Start-Stop NVH for a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle

In recent years, electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle are either on the market or under intensive research and development (R&D). Since the concept of auxiliary power unit (APU) was brought into the automotive industry, the range-extended electric vehicle (ReEV) has become the favor of the worldwide manufacturers. Normally, the APU starts and stops more frequently in response to the control strategy compared with traditional vehicles, which will affect the ride comfort of passengers. Thus, APU start-stop NVH refinement is an important aspect of ReEV R&D. In this paper, a subjective evaluation on a ReEV was performed to quickly diagnose NVH issues firstly. Based on subjective results, the NVH experiment in a semi-anechoic room was carried out to troubleshoot these issues. The accelerations of the APU mounts, the seat track and the steering wheel as well as interior noise level were acquired and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Vehicle Dash and Floor Sound Package Based on Statistical Energy Analysis

An increasing demand for vehicle noise control has been proposed and at the same time, vehicle weight and fuel economy have become critical for the automotive industry. The methodology of statistical energy analysis (SEA) is used to balance both light weight and high noise insulation performance. In this paper, the vehicle dash and floor sound package systems, which are two of the major paths for vehicle interior noise, are studied and optimized by CAE and testing technology. Two types of sound packages which are the conventional insulation system and the lightweight one are chosen for the vehicle dash and floor system. The vehicle dash and floor systems are modeled by SEA and the transmission loss (TL) of the dash and floor system is analyzed, respectively. Several influence factors of the TL are also analyzed, such as sound package coverage, the leaks, etc.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Brake Noise Mechanism Incorporating Nonlinear Effects and Complex Eigenvalue Extraction

Numerical simulation of instabilities of brake systems based on complex mode analysis is presented in this paper. The theoretical analysis shows that the friction-induced unsymmetrical system stiffness matrix results in instability, and nonlinear static analysis plays a key role in the overall analysis. The frictional study shows how unstable mode occurs, in addition to that the nonlinear effects are taken into considerations and the one variable regression function is employed to set up the relative predict functions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gear Rattle Noise and Vibration Characteristics Using Relative Approaches

Noise signals of the driver’s right ear include those of engine, environment, chassis dynamometer, loaded gears and unloaded gears when they are recorded in full vehicle on chassis dynamometer in semi-anechoic room. Gear rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear caused by unloaded gear pairs can’t be identified or quantified directly. To solve the problems, relative approaches are used to identify and quantify the gear rattle noise signals. Firstly, the rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear are filtered by human ear characteristic functions and steady noise signals are extracted by regression and smoothing processes. The noise signals are regressed at 200ms interval in the hearing critical frequency bands and smoothed in the flanking frequencies. Then, the noise relative approaches are obtained by subtracting the steady noise signals from the filtered noise signals, which are the transient noise signals of the unloaded gear pairs inducing the rattle noise.
Technical Paper

Gear Rattle Prediction Based on Compliance and Deformation of Gear Contact Points

Generally, the gear rattle noise prediction models are composed of the mass and stiffness elements. The proposals are about the gear inertia or backlash and the shaft inertia or stiffness, but there are many detailed designs in the same inertia, stiffness or backlash conditions. Therefore, these proposals can’t guide detailed designs. These models only investigate the rattle in the rotating degree, and ignore rattle contribution in the radical and axial directions. Those prediction models only consider one or several factors which affect the rattle noise performance. It is difficult to predict the influence of individual factor and multi-factors coupling on the gear rattle noise in a rattle simulation model.
Journal Article

Active Noise Equalization of Vehicle Low Frequency Interior Distraction Level and its Optimization

On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level (DL) as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating members better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five Critical Band Rates (CBRs) from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. These inputs comprise an input vector of BPANN. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on DL is realized based on Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) algorithm that controls the gain coefficients of inputs of trained BPANN.
Journal Article

Vibro-Impact Analysis of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle and Its Sound Quality Evaluation

Experimental schemes, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and sound quality prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiments, including experiment conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were described in detail. Secondly, through time-frequency analysis, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle noise were identified and vibro-impact of gear rattle occurs in the frequency range of 450~4000Hz on the vehicle idle condition and the creeping condition. Thirdly, based on bandwidth filtering processing of gear rattle noise, subjective assessment experiments by a paired comparison method were carried out.
Technical Paper

Correlation Analysis of Interior and Exterior Wind Noise Sources of a Production Car Using Beamforming Techniques

Beamforming techniques are widely used today in aeroacoustic wind tunnels to identify wind noise sources generated by interaction between incoming flow and the test object. In this study, a planar spiral microphone array with 120 channels was set out-of-flow at 1:1 aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC) to test exterior wind noise sources of a production car. Simultaneously, 2 reference microphones were set in vehicle interior to record potential sound source signal near the left side view mirror triangle and the signal of driver’s ear position synchronously. In addition, a spherical array with 48 channels was set inside the vehicle to identify interior noise sources synchronously as well. With different correlation methods and an advanced algorithm CLEAN-SC, the ranking of contributions of vehicle exterior wind noise sources to interested interior noise locations was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Evaluation of Centralized Drive PMSM Based on Grade Scoring Method

Electric vehicle driving permanent magnet synchronous motor has a wide speed range and load changes, with abundant harmonic currents, and its eccentric form is complex, which all result in poor sound quality and abnormal noise problems becoming increasingly prominent. To make a systematic and thorough study of the centralized drive permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is significant to ameliorate the sound quality and solve noise problems. MATLAB-based modeling technology, SPSS software, and the establishment of sound quality evaluation model for the centralized drive PMSM has a crucial reference value on the research and development of the electric vehicle driving permanent magnet synchronous motor. As for the sound quality of centralized drive PMSM, firstly, in order to get objective parameter values, evaluation models of objective parameters based on psychological acoustics should be established after the collection of the sound samples.
Journal Article

Study on Active Noise Control of Blower in Fuel Cell Vehicle under Transient Conditions

Blower is one of the main noise sources of fuel cell vehicle. In this paper, a narrowband active noise control (ANC) model is established based on adaptive notch filter (ANF) to control the high-frequency noise produced by the blower. Under transient conditions, in order to reduce the frequency mismatch (FM) of ANC for blower, a new Frequency Mismatch Filtered-Error Least Mean Square algorithm (FM-FELMS) is proposed to attenuate blower noise under transient conditions. According to the theoretical analysis and simulation, the proposed algorithm has an excellent noise reduction performance at relatively high blower speed. While for the low speed working condition, the Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithm is applied to attenuate noise. The two algorithms could be jointly utilized to control the blower noise actively.
Technical Paper

Performance Testing and Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Vehicle Interior Noise Using Adaptive Notch Filter

It is considered that slow convergence speed and large calculation amount of commonly used adaptive algorithm in the active control system for vehicle interior noise yield noise reduction performance and hardware requirements problems. In this paper, a 4-channel active control of vehicle interior noise based on adaptive notch filter is established, and road test is carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on adaptive notch filter is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed and compared with that of the FXLMS algorithm. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench based on multi-channel adaptive notch filter is set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of ANC system under various working conditions.
Technical Paper

Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles.
Technical Paper

Towards High Accuracy Parking Slot Detection for Automated Valet Parking System

Highly accurate parking slot detection methods are crucial for Automated Valet Parking (AVP) systems, to meet their demanding safety and functional requirements. While previous efforts have mostly focused on the algorithms’ capabilities to detect different types of slots under varying conditions, i.e. the detection rate, their accuracy has received little attention at this time. This paper highlights the importance of trustworthy slot detection methods, which address both the detection rate and the detection accuracy. To achieve this goal, an accurate slot detection method and a reliable ground-truth slot measurement method have been proposed in this paper. First, based on a 2D laser range finder, datapoints of obstacle vehicles on both sides of a slot have been collected and preprocessed. Second, the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm has been improved to efficiently cluster these unevenly-distributed datapoints.
Technical Paper

Improved Kmeans Algorithm for Detection in Traffic Scenarios

In the Kmeans cluster segmentation used in traffic scenes, there are often zone optimization and over-segmentation problems caused by the algorithm randomly assigning the initial cluster center. In order to improve the target extraction effect in traffic road scenes, this article proposes an improved Kmeans (IM-Kmeans) method. Firstly, search for the histogram peaks of the whole pixels based on hue, saturation, value (HSV) image, and find the initial cluster centers’ positions and number. Secondly, the noise points which are far away from the center pixel are removed, and then the pixels are classified into the nearest cluster center according to its value. Finally, after the clustering model reaches convergence, the area-clustering method is used for another classification to solve the over-segmentation problem. The simulation and experimental comparisons show that the IM-Kmeans algorithm has higher clustering accuracy than the traditional Kmeans algorithm.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Prediction Modelling for the Transient Sound of Vehicle Door Latch Closure

Door latch closure noise has contribution on sound quality of vehicle door slam sound. This paper focuses on the modelling of sound quality for door latch closure sound. 24 various latch closure sound samples were recorded to be evaluated subjectively. A novel Dynamic Paired Comparison Method (DPCM) was introduced for subjective evaluation. By eliminating the redundant comparison pairs the DPCM dramatically reduced the evaluation work load comparing to the traditional Paired Comparison Method (PCM). Correlation between subjective evaluation results and psychoacoustic metrics was analyzed to find out the most relevant metrics as inputs for the subsequent prediction model. Besides, the shudder effect induced by multi-impact of latch components during closing movement was also found strongly affecting the subjective perception of door latch closure sound.
Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Modification of EV Powertrain for Vibration and Noise Reduction

In order to research the vibration and noise reduction in pure electric vehicle power-train, a comprehensive work is to simulate the power-train incentive of a high-speed pure electric vehicle, and indicates significant impact of gear mesh system on the power-train NVH performance. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the impact of meshing gear system on electric vehicle power-train vibration and noise performance and seek reasonable methods to reduce the vibration and noise. In this paper, a typical pure electric vehicle's powertrain was used to conduct vibration and noise dynamic simulation. Firstly, the power train model was established considering the gear meshing stiffness, transmission errors, bearing factors and shell flexible, then the vibration and sound radiation dynamic response of power-train was simulated. Based on the accuracy of prediction model, a gear tooth modification was carried out for vibration and noise optimization.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Comprehensive Evaluation Research and Application on Vehicle Engine Exhaust System

During current design process of vehicle engine exhaust system, the frequently-used approach mainly concerns an individual component, which usually results in not meeting the overall design requirements or unreasonable design parameters. Here a concept of comprehensive evaluation metrics for vehicle engine exhaust system was established, of which a new weight factor assignment method was proposed, named change rate method, as the core of evaluation system to be especially studied. Taking muffler as an instance, six weight factor assignment schemes were adopted to compare with each other. And the rationality and practicability of the change rate assignment method was verified by the muffler noise experiments. The results show that, the change rate method makes the weight assignment more scientific and rigorous. And the new method can reflect the wishes of designers and completely displays the performance comparison and evaluation between schemes.