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Technical Paper

Naturalistic Driving Behavior Analysis under Typical Normal Cut-In Scenarios

2019-04-02
2019-01-0124
Cut-in scenarios are common and of potential risk in China but Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS) doesn’t work well under such scenarios. In order to improve the acceptance of ADAS, its reactions to Cut-in scenarios should meet driver’s driving habits and expectancy. Brake is considered as an express of risk and brake tendency in normal Cut-in situations needs more investigation. Under critical Cut-in scenarios, driver tends to brake hard to eliminate collision risk when cutting in vehicle right crossing lane. However, under less critical Cut-in scenarios, namely normal Cut-in scenarios, driver brakes in some cases and takes no brake maneuver in others. The time when driver initiated to brake was defined as key time. If driver had no brake maneuver, the time when cutting-in vehicle right crossed lane was defined as key time. This paper focuses on driver’s brake tendency at key time under normal Cut-in situations.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Classification under Cut-In Scenarios Using Support Vector Machine Based on Naturalistic Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0136
Cut-in scenario is common in traffic and has potential collision risk. Human driver can detect other vehicle’s cut-in intention and take appropriate maneuvers to reduce collision risk. However, autonomous driving systems don’t have as good performance as human driver. Hence a deeper understanding on driving behavior is necessary. How to make decisions like human driver is an important problem for automated vehicles. In this paper, a method is proposed to classify the dangerous cut-in situations and normal ones. Dangerous cases were extracted automatically from naturalistic driving database using specific detection criteria. Among those cases, 70 valid dangerous cut-in cases were selected manually. The largest deceleration of subject vehicle is over 4 m/s2. Besides, 249 normal cut-in cases were extracted by going through video data of 2000km traveled distance. In normal driving cases, subject vehicle may brake or keep accelerating and the largest deceleration was less than 3 m/s2.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety and Secure CAN in Motor Control System Design for Electric Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1255
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are widely used in the electric vehicles for their high power density and high energy efficiency. And the motor control system for electric vehicles is one of the most critical safety related systems in electric vehicles, because potential failures of this system can lead to serious harm to humans’ body, so normally a high automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) will be assigned to this system. In this paper, an ASIL-C motor control system based on a multicore microcontroller is presented. At the same time, due to the increasing number of connectivity on the vehicle, secure onboard communication conformed to the AUTOSAR standard is also implemented in the system to prevent external attacks.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Steering Model for Emergency Lane Change Based on the China Naturalistic Driving Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1399
A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Behavioral Modeling Methods for Motor Drive System EMI Design Optimization

2015-04-14
2015-01-1204
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume, weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications, particularly in airborne and other mobile platforms.
Journal Article

Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1599
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling.
Technical Paper

Driver Lane Keeping Characteristic Indices for Personalized Lane Keeping Assistance System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1982
In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior. The other reason is that the researches on driver lane keeping behavior only provide model structure and rarely discuss identification procedure such as how to select suitable data.
Technical Paper

Prediction Model of Driving Range of Electric Vehicle Based on Driver’s Driving Behavior

2019-11-04
2019-01-5058
Aiming at the problem of "mileage anxiety" caused by the inaccurate estimation of vehicle owners due to the complicated and changeable actual driving conditions, the current study of electric driving range prediction focuses on exploring the battery parameters or fitting the linear relationship between electric vehicle SOC (state of charge) and driving range under ideal conditions of experiments or software simulation, which ignores the actual vehicle driving conditions and the difference in driving range due to differences in driver's driving behaviors. This paper puts forward an innovative prediction model of the driving mileage of pure electric vehicles based on driver's driving behavior.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Driver’s Breaking Response in the Safety Cut-in Scenario Based on Naturalistic Driving

2019-11-04
2019-01-5053
For the personification of automotive vehicle function performance under common traffic scenarios, analysis of human driver behavior is necessary. Based on China Field Operational Test (China-FOT) database of China Natural Driving Study project, this paper studies the driver's response in the common cut-in scenario. A total of 266 cut-in cases are selected by manual interception of driving recorder video. The relevant traffic environment characteristics are also extracted from video, including light conditions, road conditions, scale and lateral position of cut-in vehicle, etc. Dynamic information is decoded form CAN, such as speed, acceleration and so on. Then image processing results, such as relative speed and distance of cut-in and subject vehicles, are calculated. Statistical results based on above information show the response type and distribution of human driver: the behavior of keeping lane is 96.24%, in which the ratio of braking response is 51.13%.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Design of Driver Steering Override Characteristics for LKAS

2019-11-04
2019-01-5030
Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) is a typical lateral driver assistance system with low acceptance. One of the main reasons is that fixed parameters cannot satisfy individual differences. So LKAS adaptive to driver characteristics needs to be designed. Driver Steering Override (DSO) process is an important process of LKAS. It happens when contradiction between driver’s intention and system behavior occurs. As feeling of overriding will affect the overall experience of using LKAS, the design of DSO characteristics is worthy of attention. This research provided an adaptive design scheme aiming at DSO characteristics for LKAS by building Driver Preference Model (DPM) based on simulator test data from preliminary experiments. The DPM was to represent the relationship between driver characteristics indices and driver preferred system characteristics indices. So that new drivers’ preference can be predicted by DPM based on their own daily driving data with LKAS switched off.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Machine Interaction Program in Lane Keeping Assist System Based on Field Test

2018-08-07
2018-01-1632
Lane-keeping assist system (LKA) alerts the driver or intervenes in the driving when the vehicle deviates from the lane. But its effect is highly dependent on the driver’s acceptance. Distance to Lane Crossing (DTLC) and Time to Lane Crossing (TTLC) are two important factors to consider the danger level of the scenario, which are also two references for drivers to make decisions. At present, most of the functional design standards are based on these values, while they often differ for different vehicle movements. This study uses a driving robot to precisely control the test conditions and performs field tests on two advanced autonomous vehicles in National Intelligent Connected Vehicle (Shanghai) Pilot Zone. The test conditions are extended based on various test standards and the LKA performance of vehicles in the pre-experiment.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Optimization of Driver Steering Override Strategy for LKAS Based on Driver’s Acceptability

2018-08-07
2018-01-1631
In order to satisfy design requirements of Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS), a Driver Steering Override (DSO) strategy is necessary for driver’s interaction with the assistance system. The assistance system can be overridden by the strategy in case of lane change, obstacle avoidance and other emergency situations. However, evaluation and optimization of the DSO strategy for LKAS cannot easily be completed quantitatively considering driver’s acceptability. In this research, firstly subjective and objective evaluation experiment is designed. Secondly, correlations between the subjective and the objective evaluation results are established by using regression analysis. Finally, based on the correlations established previously, the optimal performance of DSO strategy is obtained by setting the desired comprehensive evaluation ratings as the optimized goal.
Technical Paper

Critical Driving Scenarios Extraction Optimization Method Based on China-FOT Naturalistic Driving Study Database

2018-08-07
2018-01-1628
Due to the differences in traffic situations and traffic safety laws, standards for extraction of critical driving scenarios (CDSs) vary from different countries and areas around the world. To maintain the characteristic variables under the Chinese typical CDSs, this paper uses the three-layer detection method to extract and detect CDSs in the Natural Driving Data from China-FOT project which executing under the real traffic situation in China. The first layer of detection is mainly based on the feature distributions which deviate from normal driving situations. These distributions associated with speed and longitudinal acceleration/lateral acceleration/yaw rate also quantify the critical levels classification.
Technical Paper

Driver Risk Perception Model under Critical Cut-In Scenarios

2018-08-07
2018-01-1626
In China Cut-in scenarios are quite common on both highway and urban road with heavy traffic. They have a potential risk of rear-end collision. When facing a cutting in vehicle, driver tends to brake in most case to reduce collision risk. The timing and dynamic characteristics of brake maneuver are indicators of driver subjective risk perception. Time to collision (TTC) and Time Headway (THW) demonstrate objective risk. This paper aims at building a model quantitatively revealing the relationship between drivers’ subjective risk perception and objective risk. A total of 66 valid critical Cut-in cases was extracted from China-FOT, which has a travel distance of about 130 thousand miles. It is found that under Cut-in scenarios, driver tended to brake when the cutting in vehicle right crossing line. This time point was defined as initial brake time. Brake strength and brake speed were taken to describe brake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Study on Important Indices Related to Driver Feelings for LKA Intervention Process

2018-08-07
2018-01-1586
Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) system is a very important part in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). It prevents a vehicle from departing out of the lane by exerting intervention. But an inappropriate performance during LKA intervention makes driver feel uncomfortable. The intervention of LKA can be divided into 3 parts: intervention timing, intervention process and intervention ending. Many researches have studied about the intervention timing and ending, but factors during intervention process also affect driver feelings a lot, such as yaw rate and steering wheel velocity. To increase driver’s acceptance of LKA, objective and subjective tests were designed and conducted to explore important indices which are highly correlated with the driver feelings. Different kinds of LKA controller control intervention process in different ways. Therefore, it’s very important to describe the intervention process uniformly and objectively.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0818
The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Ability Testing for Automotive Ethernet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0755
With the introduction of BroadR-Reach and time-sensitive networking (TSN), Ethernet has become an option for in-vehicle networks (IVNs). Although it has been used in the IT field for decades, it is a new technology for automotive, and thus requires extensive testing. Current test solutions usually target specifications rather than the in-vehicle environment, which means that some properties are still uncertain for in-vehicle usage (e.g., fault tolerance for shorted or open wires). However, these characteristics must be cleared before applying Ethernet in IVNs, because of stringent vehicular safety requirements. Because CAN is usually used for these environments, automotive Ethernet is expected to have the same or better level of fault tolerance. Both CAN and BroadR-Reach use a single pair of twisted wires for physical media; thus, the traditional fault-tolerance test method can be applied for automotive Ethernet.
Technical Paper

Handling Improvement for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Motion Tracking Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0564
The integrated control system which combines the differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) and the direct yaw moment control (DYC) for the distributed drive electric vehicle (DDEV) is studied. A handling improvement algorithm for the normal cornering maneuvers is proposed based on motion tracking control. Considering the ideal assistant power character curves at different velocities, an open-loop DDAS control strategy is developed to respond the driver’s demand of steering wheel torque. The DYC strategy contains the steering angle feedforward and the yaw rate feedback. The steering angle feedforward control strategy is employed to improve yaw rate steady gain of vehicle. The maximum feedforward coefficients at different velocities are obtained from the constraint of the motor external characteristic, final feedforward coefficients are calculated according to the ideal assistant power character curve of the DDAS.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Racing Car Driving Simulator Based on TCP/IP

2009-05-13
2009-01-1609
Real-time interaction between a driver and the simulator is problematic. In this study, the racing car driving simulator has been established, which is composed of the following functional components: Motion Controller, Simview, Scenario Editor, Application Programmer Interface (APIs) and Crash Simulation. With TCP/IP protocol, the Motion Controller receives driver's manipulation, road unevenness and crash situation of Simview, then generates motion streams that reflecting the current conditions, and sends them to Simview and to the hydraulic platform. Furthermore, by detecting and analyzing general vehicle two-dimensional impact, a kind of complete and applicable calculation method has been established, and complicated vehicle impacts can be analyzed accurately. This racecar driving simulator places a racing driver in a interactive environment, and provides the driver with high-fidelity motion, visual, auditory, and force feedback cues.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Driving Posture Reconstruction from 3D Scanning Data Using a 3D Digital Human Modeling Tool

2016-04-05
2016-01-1357
Driving posture study is essential for the evaluation of the occupant packaging. This paper presents a method of reconstructing driver’s postures in a real vehicle using a 3D laser scanner and Human Builder (HB), the digital human modeling tool under CATIA. The scanning data was at first converted into the format readable by CATIA, and then a personalized HB manikin was generated mainly using stature, sitting height and weight. Its pelvis position and joint angles were manually adjusted so as to match the manikin with the scan envelop. If needed, a fine adjustment of some anthropometric dimensions was also preceded. Finally the personalized manikin was put in the vehicle coordinate system, and joint angels and joint positions were extracted for further analysis.
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