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Technical Paper

An Anti-Lock Braking Control Strategy for 4WD Electric Vehicle Based on Variable Structure Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0717
Based on the four-wheel-drive electric vehicle (4WD EV), a variable structure control (VSC) strategy is designed in this paper for the anti-lock braking control. With nonpeak friction coefficient as target, sign judgment method of switch function in this VSC strategy is improved and a new control algorithm is proposed. The improved VSC strategy is made robust to the parameters of the algorithm and verified by the computer simulation as well as the hard-in-loop test. The results show that the slip rate can be controlled to a point in the stable area near the optimal slip ratio and the control strategy can effectively realize the anti-lock braking control.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous Optimization Energy Management for Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Based on Minimum Loss Power Algorithm

2013-09-08
2013-24-0073
Most of the existing energy management strategies for Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) are heuristic, which restricts coordination between the battery and the Range Extender. This paper presents an instantaneous optimization energy management strategy based on the Minimum Loss Power Algorithm (MLPA) for a fuel cell E-REV. An instantaneous loss power function of power train system is constructed by considering the charge and discharge efficiency of the battery, together with the working efficiency of the fuel cell Range Extender. The battery working mode and operating points of the fuel cell Range Extender are decided by an instantaneous optimization module (an artificial neural network) that aims to minimize the loss power function at each time step.
Journal Article

Combination of Test with Simulation Analysis of Brake Groan Phenomenon

2014-04-01
2014-01-0869
During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features.
Journal Article

Adhesion Control Method Based on Fuzzy Logic Control for Four-Wheel Driven Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0109
The adhesion control is the basic technology of active safety for the four-wheel driven EV. In this paper, a novel adhesion control method based on fuzzy logic control is proposed. The control system can maximize the adhesion force without road condition information and vehicle speed signal. Also, the regulation torque to prevent wheel slip is smooth and the vehicle driving comfort is greatly improved. For implementation, only the rotating speed of the driving wheel and the motor driving torque signals are needed, while the derived information of the wheel acceleration and the skid status are used. The simulation and road test results have shown that the adhesion control method is effective for preventing slip and lock on the slippery road condition.
Journal Article

Statistical Analysis of Impacts of Surface Topography on Brake Squeal in Disc-Pad System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0027
A disc-pad system is established to study impacts of surface topography on brake squeal from the perspective of statistical analysis. Firstly, surface topographies of brake disc and pad are precisely measured on the scale of micron and are statistically analyzed with a three-dimensional evaluation system. Secondly, the finite element model of brake disc and pad without surface topographies is created and verified through component free modal tests. Thereby the valid brake squeal model for complex modal analysis is built with ABAQUS. An effective method is developed to apply interface topographies to the smooth contact model, which consequently establishes sixty brake squeal models with topographies. Thirdly, impacts of surface topography on brake squeal are studied through comparison and statistical analysis of prediction results with and without topographies.
Technical Paper

Path Following Control for Skid Steering Vehicles with Vehicle Speed Adaption

2014-04-01
2014-01-0277
In this paper we present a path following control design for a six-wheel skid-steering vehicle. Contrary to the common approaches that impose non-holonomic constraints, a dynamic vehicle model is established based on a pseudo-static tire model, which uses tire slip to determine tire forces. Our control system admits a modular structure, where a motion controller computes the reference vehicle yaw rate and reference vehicle speed and a dynamics controller tracks these signals. A robust nonlinear control law is designed to track the reference wheel speeds determined by the dynamics controller with proved stability properties. Saturated control techniques are employed in designing the reference yaw rate, which ensures the magnitude of the reference yaw rate does not violate the constraint from the ground-tire adhesion. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path following control design.
Technical Paper

Development of Composite Brake Pedal Stroke Simulator for Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0117
A brake pedal stroke simulator for Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHBS) was developed to ensure the comfort braking pedal feel for the brake-by-wire system. An EHBS with an integrated master cylinder was proposed, and a composite brake pedal stroke simulator was designed for the EHBS, which was comprised of two inline springs and a third parallel one. A normally closed solenoid valve was used to connect the master cylinder booster chamber and the stroke simulator. The suitable brake pedal stroke was achieved by three stages of these springs' compression, whereas the solenoid valve was shutdown to enable mechanical control of the service brakes when electrical faults appeared.
Journal Article

Optimal Design of On-Center Steering Force Characteristic Based on Correlations between Subjective and Objective Evaluations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0137
To overcome the shortcomings of subjective evaluation, there have been several studies to examine the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations of on-center steering feel, and some useful results are obtained. However, it is still not clear how to design the steering characteristic based on the correlations. In this paper, we propose a methodology of identifying the optimal on-center steering force characteristic based on the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations. Firstly, significant correlations between subjective and objective evaluations regarding on-center steering feel are established and verified. These verified correlations are then used to design the steering force characteristic. With desired ratings of the subjective evaluation items set as optimization goals, the ideal values of objective evaluation indices are obtained by use of an optimal design method.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Real Vehicle Velocity Based on UKF and PSO

2014-04-01
2014-01-0107
The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is applied to estimate the real vehicle velocity. The velocity estimation algorithm uses lateral acceleration, longitudinal acceleration and yaw rate as inputs. The non-linear vehicle model and Dugoff tire model are built as the estimation model of UKF. Some parameters of Dugoff tire model and vehicle, which can't be measured directly, are identified by the particle swarm optimization (PSO). For the purpose of evaluating the algorithm, the estimation values of UKF are compared with measurements of the Inertial and GPS Navigation system. Besides, the real time property of UKF is tested by xPC Target, which is a real-time software environment from MathWorks. The result of the real vehicle experiment demonstrates the availability of the UKF and PSO in vehicle velocity estimation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Friction Induced Stability, Bifurcation, Chaos, Stick-slip Vibration and their Impacts on Wiping Effect of Automotive Wiper System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0021
A 2 DOF nonlinear dynamic model of the automotive wiper system is established. Complex eigenvalues are calculated based on the complex modal theory, and the system stability as well as its dependence on wiping velocity is analyzed. Bifurcation characteristics of frictional self-excited vibration and stick-slip vibration relative to wiping velocity are studied through numerical analysis. Research of nonlinear vibration characteristics under various wiping velocities is conducted by means of phase trajectories, Poincaré map and frequency spectrum. The pervasive stick-slip vibration during wiping is confirmed, and its temporal and spatial distributions are analyzed by way of time history and contour map. Duty ratio of stick vibration and statistics of scraping residual are introduced as quantitative indexes for wiping effect evaluation. Results indicate that the negative slop of frictional-velocity characteristic is the root cause of system instability.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Hatchback Structure

2012-04-16
2012-01-0780
Lightweight automobile has an important role in saving the energy, improving the fuel economy and reducing the exhaust emission. However, reducing the mass of the automobile need to meet the structural and NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance requirements. With the rapid development of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology, more and more people tend to research the complex engineering application problem by computer simulation. An important challenge in today's simulation is the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of an automobile, including mass, stiffness and modal etc. This paper presents a MDO study in a minicar hatchback.
Technical Paper

Temperature Difference Control Strategy and Flow Field Uniformity Analysis of Ni-Mh Power Battery Package

2012-09-24
2012-01-2018
The nonuniformity property of the temperature field distribution will not only affect on the battery charging and discharging performance but also its lifetime. In this paper the elementary structural design is implemented for Ni-Mh battery package and the corresponding test platform is constructed from the point of view of temperature difference control strategy, the test results show that the present structural design schemes can effectively restrain temperature difference enlargement among the battery stacks. Through the application of adopting the flow field uniformity method to control temperature difference, and flow field optimization inside the battery package, it is found that the flow field velocity change quantity ΔV is gradually reduced as the increase of the afflux hood angle Ak and air vent width Da, and the difference of battery temperature is relatively lower, which denoting that the corresponding relationship can be created based on test data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Electrode Tabs Configuration on the Electric-Thermal Behavior of a Li-Ion Battery

2014-04-01
2014-01-1862
This paper presents a three-dimensional electrochemical electrode plate pair model to study the effect of the electrode tabs configuration. Understanding the distribution of current density, potential and heat generation rate is critical for designing li-ion batteries and conducting effective design optimization studies. We developed several electrode plate pair models which were different in position and size of tabs. Results showed the influence and comparison of different configuration on the distribution of current density, potential density and heat generation rate at different discharge process. The distribution was predicted as a function of tabs. It can provide a theoretical basis for improving battery thermal performance and cooling system design.
Journal Article

Design and Thermal Analysis of a Passive Thermal Management System Using Composite Phase Change Material for Rectangular Power Batteries

2015-04-14
2015-01-0254
A passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (PCM) for large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion batteries is designed. A battery module consisting of six Li-ion cells connected in series was investigated as a basic unit. The passive TMS for the module has three configurations according to the contact area between cells and the composite PCM, i.e., surrounding, front-contacted and side-contacted schemes. Firstly, heat generation rate of the battery cell was calculated using the Bernardi equation based on experimentally measured heat source terms (i.e. the internal resistance and the entropy coefficient). Physical and thermal properties such as density, phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the composite PCM were also obtained by experimental methods. Thereafter, thermal response of the battery modules with the three TMS configurations was simulated using 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injector Spray Layout and Injection Strategy on Gas Mixture Quality of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0747
The improvement of environmental performance by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is remarkable. But the gas mixture formation process, which greatly affects the combustion of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, still has a lot of areas left unclear. In this paper, a CFD model of air intake, fuel spray atomization and mixture formation process of a certain GDI engine was developed and experimentally verified for DISI injection study. The effects of injector spray layout and injection strategy on mixture quality of DISI engine were analyzed by respective simulation of three different injectors T1470, T1471, T1472. Results show that the mixture quality can be improved with appropriate injector spray orifices layout.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Vehicle Dash and Floor Sound Package Based on Statistical Energy Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0661
An increasing demand for vehicle noise control has been proposed and at the same time, vehicle weight and fuel economy have become critical for the automotive industry. The methodology of statistical energy analysis (SEA) is used to balance both light weight and high noise insulation performance. In this paper, the vehicle dash and floor sound package systems, which are two of the major paths for vehicle interior noise, are studied and optimized by CAE and testing technology. Two types of sound packages which are the conventional insulation system and the lightweight one are chosen for the vehicle dash and floor system. The vehicle dash and floor systems are modeled by SEA and the transmission loss (TL) of the dash and floor system is analyzed, respectively. Several influence factors of the TL are also analyzed, such as sound package coverage, the leaks, etc.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Yielding Locus of a TRIP780 Steel Sheet Using a Biaxial Tensile Test

2015-04-14
2015-01-0584
The yield locus of a cold-rolled transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP780) steel sheet was investigated using a biaxial tensile test on a cruciform specimen. The effect of the key dimensions of the cruciform specimen on the calculation error and stress inhomogeneity was analyzed in detail using an orthogonal test combined with a finite element analysis. Scanning electron metallography (SEM) observations of the TRIP780 steel were performed. The yield curve of the TRIP780 steel was also calculated using the Von Mises, Hill '48, Hill '93, Barlat '89, Gotoh and Hosford yield criteria. The experimental results indicate that none of the selected yield criteria completely agree with the experimental curve. The Hill '48 and Hosford yield criteria have the largest error while the Hill '93 and Gotoh yield criteria have the smallest error.
Technical Paper

Study on EP Energy-Saving Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1775
The price of fossil fuels and the increasing inexorable energy crisis have become vital issues for everyone. Tongji University EconoPower Racing Team was established to participate in the “Honda EconoPower Cup” annually. Every contestant in the competition must finish a certain distance in the fixed time, with the gasoline supplied by the committee. After that the committee will measure the fuel consumption of every team and calculate the distance per liter fuel (the farther the better) to determine the champion. In order to enhance the EP vehicle's achievement we've made some improvements, such as framework, body, engine's optimization and so on. In this passage we mainly state some details of our research approaches in framework, steering, transmission, shape and driving strategy. The main technologies were: friction reduction, lightweight, enhancement of power train efficiency, tire selection and driving strategy.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Brake Noise Mechanism Incorporating Nonlinear Effects and Complex Eigenvalue Extraction

2008-10-12
2008-01-2535
Numerical simulation of instabilities of brake systems based on complex mode analysis is presented in this paper. The theoretical analysis shows that the friction-induced unsymmetrical system stiffness matrix results in instability, and nonlinear static analysis plays a key role in the overall analysis. The frictional study shows how unstable mode occurs, in addition to that the nonlinear effects are taken into considerations and the one variable regression function is employed to set up the relative predict functions.
Technical Paper

Elementary Investigation into Road Simulation Experiment of Powertrain and Components of Fuel Cell Passenger Car

2008-06-23
2008-01-1585
It is very important to investigate how road irregularity excitation will affect the durability, reliability, and performance degradation of fuel cell vehicle powertrain and its key components, including the electric motor, power control unit, power battery package and fuel cell engine system. There are very few published literatures in this research area. In this paper, an elementary but integrated experimental work is described, including the real road load sample on proving ground, road load reproduction on vibration test rig, total vehicle road simulation test and key components vibration tests. Remote parameter control technology is adopted to reproduce the real road load on road simulator and six-degree-of-freedom vibration table, which is used respectively for total vehicle and components vibration tests.
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