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Technical Paper

Particle-Bound PAHs Emission from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2573
Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions in the exhaust from a heavy duty diesel engine with biodiesel fuel were studied, and the emission characteristics of PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in PM were highlighted. In the experiment, pure diesel fuel and B10 (a blend of diesel and biodiesel fuels with the volume ratio of 9 to 1) fuel were chosen. The study shows that, compared to the pure diesel, the emissions of PM, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and PAHs from the heavy duty diesel engine decrease when the engine burns B10 fuel, and the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission slightly increases, while the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions also decline. Among the detected 12 kinds of PAHs, emission concentrations of 10 kinds of PAHs from the engine with B10 descend. Especially Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent toxicity (BEQ) analysis results show that the BEQ of B10 fuel decreases by 15.2% compared to pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Diesel Fuel by Spray Impingement onto a Hot Surface at Intake Manifold

2006-10-16
2006-01-3322
A segment of steel tube with the inner diameter of 60 mm and length of 100 mm was fixed between the intake manifold and cylinder head in a direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. The surface of the tube could be heated to be above 400 °C by the heater enwrapped outside within several minutes under the power less than 600 W. The tip of an injector traditionally used for in-cylinder diesel direct injection was extended to the axis of the tube. The diesel sprays could impinge onto the hot inner surface of the tube and atomize quickly if the temperature of the tube was high enough. Then the fuel-air mixture would be sucked into the cylinder, and HCCI combustion could be fulfilled. The vaporization ratio of the impinged diesel sprays was estimated by fuel consumption, intake air flux and excess air coefficient (λ) calculated from the volumetric concentration of O2, CO2 and CO emissions. The NOx emission was always very low.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1833
In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1832
Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

2008-06-23
2008-01-1834
In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Working Process and Emissions on GDI Engine Fueled with Hydrous Ethanol Gasoline Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0219
Compared with ordinary gasoline, using ethanol gasoline blends as fuel of Internal Combustion Engine is beneficial for the performance of power, economy and emission of engine. However, the fuel ethanol blended in ethanol gasoline blends currently is usually anhydrous ethanol, which requires dewatering implementer in production process, and the cost is high. Therefore, the production cost can be significantly reduced by replacement of anhydrous ethanol with hydrous ethanol while exerting the advantage of ethanol gasoline blends. In this study, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software CONVERGE is employed to establish a simulation model of an actual gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, and investigate the effect of burning hydrous ethanol gasoline blends and different injection strategy on combustion process and emission, and the validity of the model was validated by experiments.
Technical Paper

The Emission of a Diesel Engine in Different Coolant Temperature during Cold Start at High Altitude

2019-04-02
2019-01-0730
Emissions of diesel engine have been received much more attention since the Volkswagen Emission Scandal. The Euro VI emission standard has already included cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles which is one of the hardest part of emission control. High altitude performance is also considered in the latest regulations which will be stricter in the future. Heating the coolant is one of the most common method to improve the cold start performance. But researches focus on the emission of a diesel engine in different coolant temperature at high altitude which up to 4500m have not been seen. The present research investigated the effect of coolant temperature on performance and exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate emissions) during the cold start of a diesel engine. A plateau simulation system controlled the inlet and exhaust pressure to create altitude environments from 0m to 4500m, and the coolant temperature was controlled from 20°C to 60°C.
Technical Paper

Effects of Zeolite Structure, Cu Content, Feed Gas Space Velocity, NH3/NOx Ratio, and Sulfur Poisoning on the Performance of Zeolite-Based SCR Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-0736
To meet the increasingly stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission regulations of diesel engines, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3) has become the current mainstream technical route. Experiments in the present study included the performance of Cu-Beta catalyst and Cu-CHA catalyst before and after hydrothermal aging, and the effects of Cu content, feed gas space velocity (GHSV), NH3/NOx ratio, and sulfur poisoning on the performance of Cu-CHA catalyst. In the low temperature range (T≤250 °C), the T50 and T90 of Cu-Beta catalyst are 139 °C and 165 °C, respectively, while those of Cu-CHA catalyst are 150 °C and 183 °C, respectively. In the high temperature range (T>400 °C), the NOx conversion of Cu-CHA catalyst is generally higher than that of Cu-Beta catalyst. The temperature window of Cu-Beta catalyst is 154 to 514 °C, while that of Cu-CHA catalyst is 168 to 522 °C. Cu-CHA catalyst exhibits better catalytic activity at medium and high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer and On-Road Evaluations of Emissions from a Diesel-Electric Hybrid Bus

2017-03-28
2017-01-0984
Recently Hybrid Electric Buses (HEBs) have been widely used in China for energy saving and emission reduction. In order to study the real road emission performance of HEBs, the emission tests of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus (DHEB) are evaluated both on chassis dynamometer over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) and on-road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The DHEB is powered by electric motor alone at speed of 0~20km/h. When the speed exceeds 20km/h, engine gets engaged rapidly and then works corporately with the electric motor to drive the bus. For chassis dynamometer test over CCBC, emissions of NOx, particulate number, particulate mass, and THC of the DHEB are 7.68g/km, 5.88E+11#/km, 0.412mg/km, and 0.062g/km, respectively. They have all decreased greatly compared to those of the diesel bus. But the CO emission which is 3.48g/km has increased significantly. Then the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) of the DHEB are compared with the dynamometer test results.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Study on Real-World NOx and Particle Emissions of Bus: Influences of VSP and Fuel

2019-04-02
2019-01-1181
In this study, the real-world NOx and particle emissions of buses burning pure diesel fuel (D100), biodiesel fuel with 20% blend ratio (B20) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) were measured with portable emission measurement system (PEMS). The measurement conducted at 6 constant speed, which ranged from 10km/h to 60 km/h at 10km/h intervals, and a period of free driving condition. The relationship between vehicle specific power (VSP) and NOx/particle emissions of each bus were analyzed. The results show that the change rules of NOx, PN and PM emission factors with the increase of VSP were basically the same for the same bus, but for the bus using different fuel, the change rules may change. In VSP bin 0, the vehicles were mostly in idle condition and the emission factors of NOx, PN and PM of three buses were all in a relatively high level. In low VSP interval, which ranged from bin 0 to bin 4, the emissions of three buses first decreased and then increased with the growth of VSP.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrous Ethanol Combined with EGR on Performance of GDI Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0348
In recent years, particulate matters (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been gradually paid attention to, and the hydrous ethanol has a high oxygen content and a fast burning rate, which can effectively improve the combustion environment. In addition, Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can effectively reduce engine NOx emissions, and combining EGR technology with GDI engines is becoming a new research direction. In this study, the effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline blends on the combustion and emission characteristics of GDI engines are analyzed through bench test. The results show that the increase of the proportion of hydrous ethanol can accelerate the burning rate, shorten the combustion duration by 7°crank angle (CA), advance the peak moment of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release (RoHR) and improve the combustion efficiency. The hydrous ethanol gasoline blends can effectively improve the gaseous and PM emissions of the GDI engine.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NOx Emissions of HEV under Real Road Driving

2020-04-14
2020-01-0380
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. A non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market was selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz, which can measure the missing NO peaks by standard RDE gas analyzer now. Emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Simulation Analysis of Early and Late Miller Cycle Strategies Influence on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0662
Based on the working model of a diesel engine, the influence of 2 Miller cycle strategies-Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) on the combustion and emissions of diesel engine was analyzed. Then the working condition of each Miller cycle strategies on the engine under the rated speed was optimized through the adjust of the valve timing, boost pressure and the injection timing. The research found that both delaying and advancing the closure timing of the intake valve can decrease the pressure and temperature during compression stroke, prolonging the ignition delay. However, due to the decrease of the working media inside the cylinder, the average in-cylinder temperature and soot emissions will increase, which can be alleviated by raising the boost pressure and the resulting compensation of the intake loss.
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