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Technical Paper

Schlieren Observations of In-Cylinder Phenomena Concerning a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

The schlieren visualization of in-cylinder processes from the side of an engine cylinder is useful to understand the phenomena which change along the cylinder axis. A transparent collimating cylinder, TCC, permits schlieren observation inside the cylinder through its transparent wall. In this study, a single cylinder visualization engine with the TCC was applied to a direct-injection gasoline engine. A fuel spray, mixture formation and combustion were observed with a simultaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure. The shape of the fuel spray and subsequent mixture formation process are drastically changed with the injection timing. The images of luminous flame were also taken with the schlieren images during the combustion period. Stable combustion, misfire and abnormal combustion are discussed with the comparison between the observed results and in-cylinder pressure analysis.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D. I. Engine - Chemical Analysis and Characterization of Diesel Fuel

The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method for Suppressing Formation of Deposits on Fuel Injector for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Our concern was with the phenomenon of the fuel flow rate change in the injector due to deposit formation in the direct injection gasoline engine. The fundamental factors in the deposit formation on the nozzle were investigated, and engine dynamometer tests were performed. It was clarified that the residual fuel in the nozzle hole should be kept in a liquid state so that deposit precursors could be washed away by fuel injections. As a consequence, the nozzle temperature had to be below the 90 vol. % distillation temperature of the fuel, which was the most important index to suppress the deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

Cause of Exhaust Smoke and Its Reduction Methods in an HSDI Diesel Engine Under High-Speed and High-Load Conditions

The cause of the exhaust smoke and its reduction methods in a small DI Diesel engine with a small-orifice-diameter nozzle and common rail F.I.E. were investigated under high-speed and high-load condition, using both in-cylinder observations and Three-dimensional numerical analyses. The following points were clarified during this study. At these conditions, fuel sprays are easily pushed away by a strong swirl, and immediately flow out to the squish area by a strong reverse squish. Therefore, the air in the cavity is not effectively used. Suppressing the airflow in a piston cavity, using such ideas as enlarging the piston cavity diameter or reducing the port swirl ratio, decreases the excessive outflow of the fuel-air mixture into the squish area, and allows the full use of air in the whole cavity. Hence, exhaust smoke is reduced.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.