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Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Based on Human Sensitivity (Second Report) -A Study of Cornering Feel-

Vehicle body movements that occur during cornering have a strong influence on the evaluation of ride and handling. As a first step, we analyze subjective comments from trained drivers and find that the sense of vision played a major part in cornering feel. As a result of quantitative evaluations, we hypothesize that smaller time lag between roll angle and pitch angle made cornering feel better. We perform a human sensitivity evaluation, which confirmed this hypothesis. Given this result, we derive analytical equations for the roll center kinematics and the damping characteristics, in order to find a theoretical condition for the time lag of 0sec (giving a good cornering feel). We verify this by experiment.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Lateral Grip Margin Based on Self-aligning Torque for Vehicle Dynamics Enhancement

It is well known that the self-aligning torque decreases before lateral force is saturated. Focusing on this self-aligning torque change, an estimation method has been developed to detect the friction condition between steered wheels and road surface before the lateral force reaches the friction limit. The lateral grip margin (LGM) is defined based on the self-aligning torque change, which is obtained using the EPS torque and motor current information. The LGM is theoretically analyzed based on the tire model and experimentally verified through the full-scale vehicle test. Moreover, the estimated LGM is applied for the chassis control systems to improve the vehicle dynamics performance.
Technical Paper

Friction Characteristics Analysis for Clamping Force Setup in Metal V-Belt Type CVT

In order to increase the transfer efficiency in a metal V-belt type CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission), it is effective to lower belt clamping force from a current setting value. However, setting the clamping force too low will cause a macro slip (large belt slip). Thus, in order to set the clamping force to the proper level, the friction characteristics between the belt and the pulley (belt friction characteristics) must be understood in detail, and the macro slip threshold must be defined. In this paper, we shall propose a friction expression model for a metal V-belt type CVT and use this model to explain the speed reducing ratio dependence and speed dependence of the maximum friction coefficient (μmax). We shall also define the macro slip threshold in torque fluctuation environment.
Journal Article

Improvement in Vehicle Motion Performance by Suppression of Aerodynamic Load Fluctuations

This study focuses on fluctuations in the aerodynamic load acting on a hatchback car model under steady-state conditions, which can lead to degeneration of vehicle motion performance due to excitation of vehicle vibrations. Large eddy simulations were first conducted on a vehicle model based on a production hatchback car with and without additional aerodynamic devices that had received good subjective assessments by drivers. The numerical results showed that the magnitudes of the lateral load fluctuations were larger without the devices at Strouhal numbers less than approximately 0.1, where surface pressure fluctuations indicated a negative correlation between the two sides of the rear end, which could give rise to yawing and rolling vibrations. Based on the numerical results, wind-tunnel tests were performed with a 28%-scale hatchback car model.
Journal Article

Validation and Modeling of Transient Aerodynamic Loads Acting on a Simplified Passenger Car Model in Sinusoidal Motion

Dynamic wind-tunnel tests of a simplified passenger car model were conducted using a two-degree-of-freedom model shaker. Time-resolved aerodynamic loads were derived from a built-in six-component balance and other sensors while the model underwent sinusoidal heaving and pitching motions at frequencies up to 8 Hz. The experimental results showed that frequency-dependent gains and phase differences between the model height/angle and the aerodynamic loads are in close agreement with those predicted by large-eddy simulation (LES) using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Based on these findings, transient aerodynamic loads associated with lateral motions were also estimated by LES analysis. Based on the above results, a full-unsteady aerodynamic load model was then derived in the form of a linear transfer function. The force and moment fluctuations associated with the vertical and lateral motions are well described by the full-unsteady aerodynamic load model.