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Technical Paper

Development of High-Strength Aluminum Piston Material

2010-04-12
2010-01-0220
Mass reduction of parts is growing in importance as a means for reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles.The aim of the present research was to contribute to further mass reduction of pistons by developing a new aluminum casting material with highest level of fatigue strength. This goal was achieved using a development concept of creating a homogeneous structure in which Ti was added to create a fine structure and appropriate quantities of Fe and Mn were added to form a compound that is stable at high temperatures. Stand-alone tests of prototype pistons fabricated using the developed material show that the material is 14% stronger than the conventional material, thereby enabling increases in power and mass reduction.
Journal Article

Development of Clean Diesel NOx After-treatment System with Sulfur Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-0303
Diesel engines with relatively good fuel economy are known as an effective means of reducing CO₂ emissions. It is expected that diesel engines will continue to expand as efforts to slow global warming are intensified. Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR), which was first developed in 2003 for introduction in the Japanese and European markets, shows high purification performance which can meet more stringent regulations in the future. However, it is poisoned by sulfur components in exhaust gas derived from fuel and lubricant. We then developed the sulfur trap DPNR with a sulfur trap catalyst that traps sulfur components in the exhaust gas. High purification performance could be achieved with a small amount of platinum group metal (PGM) due to prevention of sulfur poisoning and thermal deterioration.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and PM in Diesel Exhaust Based on Electrochemical Reaction

2010-04-12
2010-01-0306
The emission regulations for diesel engines are continually becoming stricter to reduce pollution and conserve energy. To meet these increasingly stringent regulations, a new exhaust after-treatment device is needed. Recently, the authors proposed the simultaneous electrochemical reduction (ECR) system for diesel particulate matter (PM) and NOx. In this method, a gas-permeable electrochemical cell with a porous solid oxide electrolyte is used for PM filtering on the anode. Alkaline earth metal is coated on the cathode for NOx storage. Application of voltage to both electrodes enables the simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx by the forced flow of oxygen ions from the cathode to the anode (oxygen pumping). In this study, the basic characteristics of the ECR system were investigated, and a disk-shaped electrochemical cell was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Research on Improving Thermal Efficiency through Variable Super-High Expansion Ratio Cycle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0174
The compression ratio and expansion ratio are fundamental parameters that determine the thermal efficiency of an SI engine, and the potential of setting these ratios to arbitrary values was studied as a way of improving engine efficiency. First, the efficiency resulting from different compression and expansion ratios was calculated from a theoretical formula. As a result, it was verified that a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency could be expected by adopting a super-high expansion ratio of 20 or higher, which is an extremely large value for an SI engine, while keeping the compression ratio within a range that can ensure appropriate combustion. Subsequently, this research calculated the possibility of improving engine efficiency under a condition that constrains the swept volume to a constant value in consideration of practicability.
Journal Article

Development of New Hybrid Transmission for Compact-Class Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0726
A new hybrid transmission has been developed for New compact class vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel economy and achieving the weight reduction and compact size. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed and advanced technology applied. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2502
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction on Rough Road Using Full Vehicle Co-simulation Model with Suspension Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0952
A full vehicle multi-body dynamic (MBD) model with suspension control system is developed for fatigue life prediction under rough road condition. The model consists of tires, a trimmed body, heavy attached parts, powertrain, suspension, joints, and a driver model, and includes a suspension control system that varies characteristics of the suspension according to the rough road inputs. For tires, a commercial MBD tire model is employed with identifiable parameters. The models are simulated to run on the optically measured road surface of the proving ground. Apart from the trimmed body, several important heavy attached parts are modeled separately, that represent dynamic behavior that induces complex body input load. These parts, along with suspension and powertrain systems are connected to the body using nonlinear elements such as joints, springs, and dampers. Contact conditions are used to represent mount bushing, hood lock, stopper rubber, etc.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Behavior for 4WD Vehicle on 4WD-chassis Dynamometer

2010-04-12
2010-01-0926
Technologies of 4WD chassis dynamometers (CHDY hereinafter) have advanced dramatically over the past several years, enabling 4WD vehicles to be tested without modifying their drive-train into 2WD. These advances have opened the use of 4WD-CHDY in all fuel economy and emission evaluation tests. In this paper, factors that influence the accuracy of fuel economy tests on 4WD CHDY are discussed. Fuel economy tests were conducted on 4WD CHDY and we found that most of the vehicle mechanical loss is the tire loss and that stabilizing the tire loss of the test vehicle is essential for the test reproducibility.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Model for FCHV Control and Functional Specification Development within a Software-in-the-Loop Simulation Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0939
Model-Based Development (MBD) has become an automotive industry standard process in vehicle control systems development due to the potential to reduce development time and improve engineering quality. This has become even more important as control systems are becoming increasingly complex while development cycle timelines shorten. Toyota utilized Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations (HILS) techniques when developing the latest Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle, FCHV-adv. These MBD techniques contributed to the overall development process, but applications were limited to verifying control specifications. It was recognized that if MBD could be utilized beyond its current role in the control system design process to include functional specification validation, specification quality could be improved while decreasing development time and cost.
Technical Paper

Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for Effectiveness Estimation of a Pre-Collision System (PCS) by Utilizing Driving Simulator Test and EDR Data Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-1003
Pre-collision system (PCS) that basically consists of warning buzzer, brake-assist and automatic brake functions is designed to help mitigate injury occurring in frontal impacts where preceding vehicles are impacted from the rear. Since the benefit of each function is influenced by drivers' reaction before collision, it is difficult to estimate quantitative effectiveness for improvement. This paper proposes an approach to establish a Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for the effectiveness estimation of a PCS by utilizing driving simulator (DS) test results and Event Data Recorder (EDR) data. The estimation procedure consists of four steps. Firstly, the PCS functions were modeled as linear transfer functions with gain, delay, etc. Test vehicle's properties were measured and modeled as an example. Secondly, the transfer functions were applied to each DS test result, and the speed reduction from travel speed to impact speed was calculated by the model assuming that PCS was installed.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

2010-10-10
2010-01-1691
The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Rapid Start-up from Sub-freezing Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1092
The Fuel Cell is a highly efficient device that when integrated with hybrid technology yields even higher system-level efficiencies. This impressive efficiency is one of the key reasons fuel cell technology is one of the most promising future power sources. However, this benefit creates a significant challenge in cold climates. With so much of the energy converted directly to power, there is little waste heat compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) technologies. This challenge is particularly apparent at system start up from ambient sub-freezing temperatures due to the fact that the fuel cell heats-up slower than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Clearly, the amount of heat generation can be increased if the total power produced by the system is increased proportionally, but this method can be challenging because the excess power must be consumed in some manner (such as by a cabin heater).
Technical Paper

Development of Water Content Control System for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles Based on AC Impedance

2010-04-12
2010-01-1088
Toyota has been developing fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHV) since 1992 and is currently working to resolve issues that remain for commercialization. This research focused on one of the main issues for fuel cells (FC), namely water content of the electrolyte membrane, to develop a FC water content control system based on AC impedance measurement. Adopting this control system in the FCHV resolved the issue of reduced efficiency caused by FC membrane dry-out, and makes it possible to start up the FCHV in temperatures down to -30°C by performing appropriate water content control for freezing environments.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0134
Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
Journal Article

Development of Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions Systems for Toyota THS II Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0831
Exhaust and evaporative emissions systems have been developed to match the characteristics and usage of the Toyota THS II plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on the commercially available Prius, the Toyota PHEV features an additional external charging function, which allows it to be driven as an electric vehicle (EV) in urban areas, and as an hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in high-speed/high-load and long-distance driving situations. To reduce exhaust emissions, the conventional catalyst warm up control has been enhanced to achieve emissions performance that satisfies California's Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standards in every state of battery charge. In addition, a heat insulating fuel vapor containment system (FVS) has been developed using a plastic fuel tank based on the assumption that such a system can reduce the diffusion of vapor inside the fuel tank and the release of fuel vapor in to the atmosphere to the maximum possible extent.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0866
Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0851
Multi-cylinder hydrogen-absorbing alloy tanks for fuel cell vehicles have 10 to 40 metallic cylinders that are bundled and filled with hydrogen-absorbing alloy. In this system, the cylinders themselves act as a heat exchanger and the working pressure is lowered to 10 to 20 MPa compared with high-pressure MH tanks. Moreover, both heat conduction and mass reduction can be achieved by reducing the wall thickness of the cylinders. A model verification experiment was conducted using a one-quarter-scale prototype of a full size tank, and a conduction simulation model verified in the experiment was used to predict the performance of the full size tank. Results showed that it is possible to fill the tank with hydrogen to 80% of its capacity in a five-minute filling time, although issues related to heat conductivity performance require improvement. Accordingly, it may be possible to adopt this tank as part of a system if the storage amount of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy can be increased.
Journal Article

High Concentration Ethanol Effect on SI Engine Emission

2010-04-12
2010-01-1268
From the energy security and CO2 reduction point of view, much attention has been paid to the usage of bio-fuel. Recently, highly concentrated ethanol is used in some areas (“E85”; 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline in North America and Sweden, and “ethanol”; 93% ethanol and 7% water in Brazil). In these regions, Flexible Fuel Vehicles FFVs are being introduced that are capable of using fuels with a wide range of ethanol concentrations. Advantages of highly concentrated ethanol in internal combustion engine applications are higher thermal efficiency obtained due to higher octane number, and a reduction of nitrogen oxides due to lower combustion temperatures On the other hand, the latent heat of vaporization for ethanol is greater than gasoline, causing poor cold startability and high NMOG emissions. This paper examines the effect of highly concentrated ethanol on exhaust emissions at cold start in a SI- engine.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

2011-05-17
2011-39-7204
In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
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