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Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Power Connector Equipped with Outdoor Power Outlet Using Vehicle Inlet of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1442
After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, Toyota Motor Corporation received considerable public response regarding the role of vehicles in emergencies from a large number of customers. These included comments about the usefulness of the electricity supply system in the Estima Hybrid during the long power outages caused by the earthquake. In response, Toyota decided to install this system in its other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This system is capable of supplying power up to 1,500 watts, which means that it can be used to operate virtually every household electrical device. Since the engine starts automatically when the main battery capacity is depleted, a single vehicle can supply the daily power needs of a normal house in Japan for about four days, providing that the battery is fully charged and the fuel tank is full.
Technical Paper

Validation Test Result Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1464
In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO2 emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), which can efficiently use electricity supplied from infrastructure, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid in 2012 in the U.S., Europe and Japan. This is the first PHV to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 PHVs through lease programs for validation testing in the U.S., Europe and Japan. Additional 30 PHVs were introduced in China in March 2011 for the same objective.
Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0679
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Alert Method for Rear Cross Traffic Alert System in North America

2013-04-08
2013-01-0732
In recent years, a number of different Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) systems have become more and more popular in North American automotive market. The BSM system advises the driver of vehicles travelling in adjacent lanes when these vehicles are also in the driver's outside rearview mirror blind spots. Similarly, when the vehicle is backing up from a parking spot, cross-traffic vehicles can be in the driver's outside mirror blind spots. In this situation, the Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system alerts the driver when the driver shifts the vehicle in the reverse gear and there are approaching cross-traffic vehicles. The benefits of RCTA system was presented by [1]. The RCTA alert studied in this paper is given by playing an audible sound and by flashing the outside mirror indicators. The RCTA and BSM systems share the same vehicle sensors and most of their vehicle components.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Secondary Motion Using the New Digital Telemeter

2013-04-08
2013-01-1708
The authors have developed a measurement technique using a new digital telemeter which measures the piston secondary motion as ensuring high accuracy while under the operation. We applied this new digital telemeter to several measurements and analysis on the piston secondary motion that can cause piston noises, and here are some of the results from our measurement. We have confirmed that these piston motions vary by only several tenths of millimeter changes of the piston specifications such as the piston-pin offset and the center of gravity of the piston. As in other cases, we have found that a mere change of pressure in the crankcase or the amount of lubricating oil supplied on the cylinder bore varies the piston motion that may give effect on the piston noises.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1293
When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
Technical Paper

Development of 3-Wet Paint System with Improved Appearance - Paint Design Based on Transfer Mechanism of Unevenness from Under Layers

2014-04-01
2014-01-1048
Waterborne 3-wet paint systems have been developed to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 on vehicle painting lines. However, only a small number of vehicles have adopted this system due to limitations in appearance quality (smoothness and gloss). Therefore, a waterborne 3-wet paint system with appearance quality equivalent to a conventional 3-coat 2-bake (3C2B) paint system is under development. This paper describes research for improving appearance quality. After analyzing the unevenness surface formation mechanism of a paint film, this was achieved by adopting base resins with a low glass transition point (Tg) to promote leveling, and reducing the melamine content of the paint to minimize contraction during baking.
Technical Paper

A Solid Particle Number Measurement System Including Nanoparticles Smaller than 23 Nanometers

2014-04-01
2014-01-1604
The particle number (PN) emission regulation has been implemented since 2011 in Europe. PN measurement procedure defined in ECE regulation No. 83 requires detecting only solid particles by eliminating volatile particles, the concentrations of which are highly influenced by dilution conditions, using a volatile particle remover (VPR). To measure PN concentration after the VPR, a particle number counter (PNC) which has detection threshold at a particle size of 23 nm is used, because most solid particles generated by automotive engines are considered to be larger than 23 nm. On the other hand, several studies have reported the existence of solid and volatile particles smaller than 23 nm in engine exhaust. This paper describes investigation into a measurement method for ultrafine PNCs with thresholds of below 23 nm and evaluation of the VPR performance for the particles in this size range. The detection efficiency of an ultrafine PNC was verified by following the ECE regulation procedure.
Technical Paper

Development of Driving Force Control Technology of CVT for North American Market

2014-04-01
2014-01-1730
Toyota Motor Corporation developed a continuously variable transmission (CVT), unit K313, to satisfy the rising demand for improved fuel economy. This transmission was installed in the North American market Corolla for the 2014 model year. In this market, the driveability demands for automatic transmissions (AT) are very high. Additionally, the market is dominated by conventional AT with fixed gear ratios, leaving CVTs in the minority. In order to increase the volume and acceptance of CVTs in North America, excellent driveability had to be ensured. The key driveability advantage of CVTs is the ability to change gear ratio continuously without engaging or disengaging clutches. This allows for smooth driving without any shocks or gaps in drive force; however, it can also feel strange to drivers of conventional AT.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation Continuously Variable Transmission

2014-04-01
2014-01-1728
In response to global demands for environmental conservation, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on the development of fuel-efficient technologies to help reduce global CO2 emissions. With the aim of simultaneously improving fuel economy and driveability, TOYOTA has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) vehicles in North America equipped with a 1.8-liter engine [1]. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy, including: the world's first coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, a flex start system, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a higher final gear ratio. This paper outlines the configuration, characteristics, performance, and new technologies of this CVT.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Engine Oil Effect on Abnormal Combustion in Turbocharged Direct Injection - Spark Ignition Engines (Part 2)

2013-10-14
2013-01-2569
As one of spark ignition (SI) engine solutions to improve fuel economy while maintaining drivability, concept of combing turbocharging and direct injection (DI) fuel injection system with engine down-sizing has increased its application in the market. Abnormal combustion phenomena referred to as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) has been recognized as potential restriction to improve low speed engine torque that contributes fuel economy improvement. As reported in the part 1 [1], the study showed that engine oil composition had significant influence on the frequency of LSPI in both preventive and contributory effects. Further investigation was conducted to evaluate engine oil formulation variables and other factors that may have influences on the LSPI, such as engine oil degradation. Engine test that consisted of 2 phases was designed in order to confirm the correlation between LSPI frequency and engine oil degradation.
Journal Article

Development of Full-Scale Wind Tunnel for Enhancement of Vehicle Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0598
A new wind tunnel was developed and adopted by Toyota Motor Corporation in March 2013. This wind tunnel is equipped with a 5-belt rolling road system with a platform balance that enables the flow simulation under the floor and around the tires in on-road conditions. It also minimizes the characteristic pulsation that occurs in wind tunnels to enable the evaluation of unsteady aerodynamic performance aspects. This paper describes the technology developed for this new wind tunnel and its performance verification results. In addition, after verifying the stand-alone performance of the wind tunnel, a vehicle was placed in the tunnel to verify the utility of the wind tunnel performance. Tests simulated flow fields around the vehicle in on-road conditions and confirmed that the wind tunnel is capable of evaluating unsteady flows.
Technical Paper

Study of Cooling Drag Reduction Method by Controlling Cooling Flow

2014-04-01
2014-01-0679
As the demand for improved fuel economy increases and new CO2 regulations have been issued, aerodynamic drag reduction has become more critical. One of the important factors to consider is cooling drag. One way to reduce cooling drag is to decrease the air flow volume through the front grille, but this has an undesirable impact on cooling performance as well as component heat load in the under-hood area. For this reason, cooling drag reduction methods while keeping reliability, cooling performance and component heat management were investigated in this study. At first, air flow volume reduction at high speed was studied, where aerodynamic drag has the greatest influence. For vehicles sold in the USA, cooling specification tends to be determined based on low speed, while towing or driving up mountain roads, and therefore, there may be extra cooling capacity under high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion (ESTEC)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1192
From the time the first Hybrid Vehicle (HV) was launched, 17 years have past, and HV vehicles have boosted the global CO2 reduction trend. In order to maximize their merit, many HV engines focused on the best fuel consumption value namely thermal efficiency. This was because HV systems can control the operating area of engine and get merit. However, considering climate change and energy issues, it is important to focus conventional vehicle as well as HV vehicle progress. The Atkinson cycle with a high compression ratio is the typical approach that HV engines use to enhance thermal efficiency. However, the drawback of the high compression ratio is a reduction of engine torque. Thermal efficiency at low load areas is relatively more important with conventional engines than with HV engines and how to overcome these issues is significantly important with conventional engines.
Journal Article

Onboard Gasoline Separation for Improved Vehicle Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1200
ExxonMobil, Corning and Toyota have collaborated on an Onboard Separation System (OBS) to improve gasoline engine efficiency and performance. OBS is a membrane based process that separates gasoline into higher and lower octane fractions, allowing optimal use of fuel components based on engine requirements. The novel polymer-ceramic composite monolith membrane has been demonstrated to be stable to E10 gasoline, while typically providing 20% yield of ∼100 RON product when using RUL 92 RON gasoline. The OBS system makes use of wasted exhaust energy to effect the fuel separation and provides a simple and reliable means for managing the separated fuels that has been demonstrated using several generations of dual fuel test vehicles. Potential applications include downsizing to increase fuel economy by ∼10% while maintaining performance, and with turbocharging to improve knock resistance.
Journal Article

New Combustion Concept for Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1210
The advantages of gasoline direct-injection are intake air cooling due to fuel vaporization which reduces knocking, additional degrees of freedom in designing a stratified injection mixture, and capability for retarded ignition timing which shortens catalyst light-off time. Stratified mixture combustion designs often require complicated piston shapes which disturb the fluid flow in the cylinder, leading to power reduction, especially in turbocharged gasoline direct-injection engines. Our research replaced the conventional shell-type shallow cavity piston with a dog dish-type curved piston that includes a small lip to facilitate stratification and minimize flow disturbance. As a result, stable stratified combustion and increased power were both achieved.
Journal Article

Study of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1218
This paper analyzes low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), a sudden pre-ignition phenomenon that occurs in downsized boosted gasoline engines in low engine speed high-load operation regions. This research visualized the in-cylinder state before the start of LSPI combustion and observed the behavior of particles, which are thought to be the ignition source. The research also analyzed pre-ignition by injecting deposit flakes and other combustible particulate substances into the combustion chamber. The analysis found that these particles require at least two combustion cycles to reach a glowing state that forms an ignition source. As a result, deposits peeling from combustion chamber walls were identified as a new mechanism causing pre-ignition. Additionally, results also suggested that the well-known phenomenon in which the LSPI frequency rises in accordance with greater oil dilution may also be explained by an increase in deposit generation.
Technical Paper

Simulator Motion Sickness Evaluation Based on Eye Mark Recording during Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

2014-04-01
2014-01-0441
The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
Technical Paper

Research on Improving Thermal Efficiency through Variable Super-High Expansion Ratio Cycle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0174
The compression ratio and expansion ratio are fundamental parameters that determine the thermal efficiency of an SI engine, and the potential of setting these ratios to arbitrary values was studied as a way of improving engine efficiency. First, the efficiency resulting from different compression and expansion ratios was calculated from a theoretical formula. As a result, it was verified that a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency could be expected by adopting a super-high expansion ratio of 20 or higher, which is an extremely large value for an SI engine, while keeping the compression ratio within a range that can ensure appropriate combustion. Subsequently, this research calculated the possibility of improving engine efficiency under a condition that constrains the swept volume to a constant value in consideration of practicability.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0134
Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
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