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Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0530
A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Combustion Concept to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0531
A direct injection (DI) gasoline engine having a new stratified charge combustion system has been developed. This new combustion process (NCP) was achieved by a fan-shaped fuel spray and a combustion chamber with a shell-shaped cavity in the piston. Compared with the current Toyota D-4 engine, wider engine operating area with stratified combustion and higher output performance were obtained without a swirl control valve (SCV) and a helical port. This report presents the results of combustion analyses to optimize fuel spray characteristics and piston cavity shapes. Two factors were found to be important for achieving stable stratified combustion. The first is to create a ball-shaped uniform mixture cloud in the vicinity of the spark plug. The optimum ball-shaped mixture cloud is produced with a fuel spray having early breakup characteristics and uniform distribution, and a suitable side wall shape in the piston cavity to avoid the dispersion of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Toyota's U340E Four-speed Automatic Transaxle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1147
TOYOTA has designed a new family of automatic transaxles named the “Super ECT”. These are the next generation of automatic transaxles (AT), for FWD passenger cars. The aim of this development was compactness, lightness, and improvements in fuel economy and shift quality. There are several kinds of transaxles included in this group to match each of the FWD passenger cars and engines. The “U340E,” a four-speed automatic transaxle, has been developed as one member of this family. This is one of the most compact and light AT in its class, and has greatly contributed to the fuel economy of vehicles. This paper will give an overview of the “Super ECT” and the major features and performance of the U340E.
Technical Paper

A New Tooth Flank Form to Reduce Transmission Error of Helical Gear

2000-03-06
2000-01-1153
Transmission error is the main cause of gear noise in automobile transmissions, and recently can be estimated by numerical analysis [1]. First, in this report, we establish the accurate numerical analysis of transmission error by using FE analysis and Hertz's contact analysis of gear tooth stiffness. Secondly, on the basis of the established numerical analysis, we develop a new tooth flank form to reduce transmission error. The new tooth flank form aims to ensure the coincidence of meshing stiffness at all meshing positions. Finally, a validation test using an experimental prototype is performed, and we confirm that the estimated effect by the new tooth flank form has been obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of the High Speed 2ZZ-GE Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0671
The 2ZZ-GE is a sporty 1.8 liter engine based on the 1ZZ-FE, which is currently being mass produced in Japan, USA, and Canada. It was designed to fit into the same engine compartment as the base 1ZZ-FE, have equivalent vehicle performance as a 2.2 liter engine, and meet TLEV emission standards. The main features of the 2ZZ-GE are the Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) reinforced all-aluminum cylinder block and the intelligent Variable Valve Timing and Lift (VVTL-i) system. These features were adopted for size and performance. Other features such as a reinforced ladder frame, and an intake manifold spacer was utilized for a sporty engine sound. The 2ZZ-GE delivers maximum power at 7600rpm and maximum torque at 6800rpm.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Spot-Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0779
A method of fatigue life estimation for the spot-welds of vehicle body structures by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was studied. 6 general forces applied to a nugget of spot-weld under multiaxial loads were determined and the Nominal Structural Stress (σns) was calculated from them. It was confirmed that fatigue strength of the spot-welds under various multiaxial loads could be estimated universally by using σns. Based on the theory of elasticity of plates, stress of spot-weld nugget was analyzed. The theoretical equations for determining the principal stress at the nugget edge from6 general forces acting on a nugget were derived. And the principal stress was defined as the σns. The value of σns was determined by FEM that used a solid model and compared with the theoretical calculation value. They agreed quite well. Fatigue tests of DC specimens under various multiaxial loads (shear plus cross tension and tensile shear plus torsion) were conducted.
Technical Paper

A Study of Microgrooved Bearing Performance by using Numerical Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-1338
To meet the requirement for higher performance engine bearings, the microgrooved bearings, that is the plain bearings with shallow circumferential grooves, have been developed. Recently, the performance of microgrooved bearings obtained experimentally have reported1)2). The authors calculated the bearing performance of the microgrooved bearings by elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. In this paper, the authors described thecalculation method and the performance of the microgrooved bearings obtained theoretically.
Technical Paper

Deactivation Mechanism of NOX Storage-Reduction Catalyst and Improvement of Its Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-1196
A lean burn engine is effective in reducing fuel consumption. NOX storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalyst) have been developed for these engines. In order to improve the performance of NSR catalysts, suppression of sulfur poisoning, which is one of the main causes of NSR catalyst deactivation, must be improved. In this paper, the sulfur desorption phenomenon has been analyzed from a novel point of view. Based on these results, an NSR catalyst with improved sulfur resistance has been developed by incorporation of highly dispersed titania, and use of a heat resistant zirconia with enhanced basicity.
Technical Paper

MMC All Aluminum Cylinder Block for High Power SI Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1231
An all aluminum cylinder block with a Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) cylinder bore was developed which made it possible to re-design the base engine for high performance with a bore-to-bore distance as narrow as 5.5mm. The cylinder block is an open deck type and the MMC preform consists of alumina-silica fibers and mulite particles. A laminar flow die cast process was selected to ensure defect-free MMC bore quality. To insure good lubrication, electrochemical machining was applied to the bore surface. By use of radioisotope(RI) measurements, MMC reinforcement was optimized for wear characteristics. Particular attention was paid to use of fuels with high sulfur levels.
Technical Paper

Development of Active-Traction Control System

2000-05-01
2000-01-1636
Active-TRAC (A-TRAC) is the system for off-road 4WD vehicles. This system consists of independent four wheel brake control system and engine torque control system. This system applies the brake to any spinning wheel, and sends torque to the other wheels with grip. Therefore, the vehicle gets strong LSD(Limited Slip Differential) effect, and it has the same traction performance as a center and rear differential locked vehicle. Because the vehicle with A-TRAC does not have a differential locking mechanism, it no longer has the phenomenon of tight corner braking, and it frees a driver from operating the differential locking system. Therefore anyone can easily enjoy off-road driving with A-TRAC.
Technical Paper

Studies on Carbon Canester to Satisfy LEVII EVAP Regulations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0895
Recently, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed a new set of evaporative emissions and “Useful Life” standards, called LEVII EVAP regulations, which are more stringent than those of the enhanced EVAP emissions regulations. If the new regulations are enforced, it will become increasingly important for the carbon canister to reduce Diurnal Breathing Loss (DBL) and to prevent deterioration of the canister. Therefore, careful studies have been made on the techniques to meet these regulations by clarifying the working capacity deterioration mechanism and the phenomenon of DBL in a carbon canister. It has been found that the deterioration of working capacity would occur if high boiling hydrocarbons, which are difficult to purge, fill up the micropores of the activated carbon, and Useful Life could be estimated more accurately according to the saturated adsorption mass of the activated carbon and the canister purge volume.
Technical Paper

Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves

2000-03-06
2000-01-0905
In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.
Technical Paper

Highly Functional Engine Testing Technology Using an Electric Motor Drive

1999-03-01
1999-01-0943
In contrast to the sensory inspection conventionally performed on the firing bench during final assembly, a technology in which quality inspections are distributed throughout the engine assembly line by using an electric motor to drive the engine, has been developed. Through this process, combustion conditions can be quantitatively tested by component, and leak test conditions can be optimized. Consequently, defects can be detected and their causes identified at an early stage of assembly, thus accelerating the feedback of information to the appropriate process. The result, a level of product quality that is higher than through the conventional means.
Technical Paper

Anti-Reflection (AR) Coating Meter

1999-03-01
1999-01-0897
So far in conventional automotive meter, reflection of the incident light on a cover glass is prevented by a hood and a curved cover glass. Anti-reflection coating (hereafter abbreviated as AR coating) on the surface of cover glass can offer a meter without the hood. Thin films of AR coating are uniformly deposited on a large polymethylmethacrylate substrate in an ambient atmosphere by sol-gel dip coating and cured at low temperature. The AR coated panel shows a very low reflectance. In addition, the AR coating has a high reliability for the instrument panels of automobiles. The AR coating meter offers new instrument panel design for Toyota Prius.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimum Tooth Modifications of Helical Gears Under Various Loads

1999-03-01
1999-01-1053
This paper describes an unique concept for the optimum design of tooth modifications of helical gears. The tooth modifications of helical gears will minimize transmission error under various loads with flexible supporting members, i.e. automobile transmissions. The key point of this concept is the amount of tooth modifications on each path of contact moved by misalignment under each respective target torque. Using this concept, it is possible to calculate the optimum 3-dimensional tooth modifications. The tooth modifications under light load will be a small curvature, and a large curvature under high load. Furthermore, through observation we can determine that the tooth surface modifications will have excellent impact on transmission error over a wide torque range. Finally, this method is verified experimentally in various misalignment conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage-Reduction Three-way Catalyst for D-4 Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1279
It is an essential task for automobiles to reduce their fuel consumption. A direct injection gasoline engine (D-4 engine) is effective in reducing fuel consumption, but the reduction of NOx in the lean combustion region is impossible with a conventional three-way catalyst. The NOx storage-reduction three-way catalyst was put into practical use in 1994 for vehicles with lean-burn engines. This catalyst, however, is poisoned by SO2 caused by fuel sulfur, thus its activity is reduced. The conversion efficiency of this sulfur poisoned catalyst was not sufficient for reducing NOx in the exhaust gas of D-4 engine. We have, therefore, studied the mechanism of sulfur poisoning, and succeeded in improving the catalytic performance with the newly developed monolithic substrate and the newly developed additives.
Technical Paper

Development of Rheologically Controlled Waterborne Basecoats

1999-03-01
1999-01-1208
Public awareness toward the environment has been increasing recently. Accordingly, volatile organic compounds from automotive coating processes must be decreased to protect the environment. Various environmental regulations are already being enforced in many countries and it's expected that the rules will become tighter every year. For this reason, the usage of waterborne basecoats has increased recently. But the introduction of waterborne basecoats has some difficulties such as the requirement of strict temperature and humidity control. So, the application of waterborne basecoats has been inferior to that of solventborne basecoats. We have conducted an investigation, putting emphasis on the viscosity characteristics of waterborne basecoats and reached the conclusion that the following factors are important for applying waterborne basecoats: During spray application, the paint indicates shear thinning behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of New Automatic Transmission Fluid for Fuel Economy

2003-10-27
2003-01-3258
It is important to reduce the viscosity of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in order to improve fuel economy. However, in general, low viscosity fluid can cause metal fatigue, wear, and seizure. It is necessary to increase the viscosity of the fluid at higher temperatures to maintain the durability of the automatic transmission (AT). The key point is the selection of the base oil and the viscosity index improver (VII) with both a high viscosity index (VI) and excellent shear stability. On the basis of this concept, a new generation high performance ATF named WS was developed. WS can achieve the highest level of fuel economy, while maintaining the durability of the AT.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transmission A761E for RWD Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0650
Toyota Motor Corporation has recently developed a new six-speed automatic transmission (A761E) for Front Engine Rear Wheel Drive (FR) vehicles. Following the general trend of increased shift stages and a wider range of gear ratios, this six-speed automatic transmission has been developed with attention paid to the gear steps and a wider range of gear ratios. By balanced selection of close-ratio gears in a wider range, the change greatly improves the power performance and fuel economy of the vehicle. To further improve fuel economy we have adopted new technologies such as low-viscosity ATF, neutral control, and deceleration control by extending the fuel cut range (reset speed). We have also adopted a flat-shaped torque converter, small solenoids, an aluminum oil pump cover, etc. to realize the lightest six-speed automatic transmission in the world.
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