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Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Power Connector Equipped with Outdoor Power Outlet Using Vehicle Inlet of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1442
After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, Toyota Motor Corporation received considerable public response regarding the role of vehicles in emergencies from a large number of customers. These included comments about the usefulness of the electricity supply system in the Estima Hybrid during the long power outages caused by the earthquake. In response, Toyota decided to install this system in its other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This system is capable of supplying power up to 1,500 watts, which means that it can be used to operate virtually every household electrical device. Since the engine starts automatically when the main battery capacity is depleted, a single vehicle can supply the daily power needs of a normal house in Japan for about four days, providing that the battery is fully charged and the fuel tank is full.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1293
When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0866
Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Journal Article

Development of Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions Systems for Toyota THS II Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0831
Exhaust and evaporative emissions systems have been developed to match the characteristics and usage of the Toyota THS II plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on the commercially available Prius, the Toyota PHEV features an additional external charging function, which allows it to be driven as an electric vehicle (EV) in urban areas, and as an hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in high-speed/high-load and long-distance driving situations. To reduce exhaust emissions, the conventional catalyst warm up control has been enhanced to achieve emissions performance that satisfies California's Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standards in every state of battery charge. In addition, a heat insulating fuel vapor containment system (FVS) has been developed using a plastic fuel tank based on the assumption that such a system can reduce the diffusion of vapor inside the fuel tank and the release of fuel vapor in to the atmosphere to the maximum possible extent.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of CO Formation in Diesel Combustion - The use of intake air throttling to create reducing atmospheres for NSR catalysts -

2011-08-30
2011-01-1841
The efficiency of the NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalysts used in the aftertreatment of diesel engine exhaust gases can potentially be increased by using reactive reductants such as CO and H₂ that are formed during in-cylinder combustion. In this study, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with complex chemical analysis was used to study combustion with various fuel after-injection patterns. The results obtained will be useful in designing fuel injection strategies for the efficient formation of CO.
Journal Article

FAME Blended Diesel Fuel Impacts on Engine/Vehicle Systems

2011-08-30
2011-01-1944
The impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) blended diesel fuel on engine/vehicle systems was comprehensively investigated by vehicle, laboratory and engine tests. In this study, 20% FAME blended fuel (B20) was mainly used and soy bean oil methyl ester (SME) was primarily selected as the FAME. Vehicle testing with long-term fuel storage in vehicle fuel tanks was conducted, considering the most severe conditions in market use. Laboratory and engine tests were also conducted to better understand the vehicle test results. In the vehicle test, engine startability, idle roughness and fuel injection control were evaluated using nine vehicles with plastic or metal fuel tanks. All vehicles showed no problems up to 7 months. While five vehicles with plastic fuel tank did not show any problems throughout the test period up to 18 months, four vehicles with metal fuel tanks experienced malfunctions in engine start or fuel injection control following 8, 13, 13 and 18 months respectively.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of CNG Engines by Hydrogen Addition

2011-08-30
2011-01-1996
This research aimed to identify how combustion characteristics are affected by the addition of hydrogen to methane, which is the main components of natural gas, and to study a combustion method that takes advantage of the properties of the blended fuel. It was found that adding hydrogen did not achieve a thermal efficiency improvement effect under stoichiometric conditions because cooling loss increased. The same result was obtained under EGR stoichiometric conditions. In contrast, under lean burn conditions, higher thermal efficiency and lower NOx than with methane combustion was achieved by utilizing the wide flammability range of hydrogen to expand the lean limit. Although NOx can be decreased easily by the addition of large quantities of hydrogen, the substantially lower energy density of the fuel causes a substantial reduction in cruising range. Consequently, this research improved the combustion of a CNG engine by increasing the tumble ratio to 1.8.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

2007-04-16
2007-01-0665
In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Flow and Spray Atomization in Slit Nozzle for Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1000
The slit nozzle in the fuel injection valve for a direct injection spark ignition gasoline engine forms a thin, fan-shaped spray. The fan-shaped spray is characterized by high dispersion, comparatively high penetration, and fine atomization. This enables it to form a stable air-fuel mixture. However, further improvement of engine performance requires that the spray characteristics (particularly the level of atomization) be improved. Since the spray characteristics are strongly influenced by the fuel flow within the nozzle, it was clarified this effect by visual analyses of the fuel flow inside the nozzle using enlarged acrylic slit nozzles. The results demonstrated that vortices that are formed within the nozzle sac are continuously propagated in a periodic manner within the sac and that they influence the streamline of fuel flow from the sac to the slit.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Fuel Liquid Film Thickness of a Port Fuel Injection Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1051
In this paper, the authors have developed a new measuring method of the liquid fuel film thickness on walls, such as intake ports, the combustion chamber and cylinder liner of a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine, and clarified the fuel film behavior under various running conditions when Fiber-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (Fiber-based LIF) was applied to the newly developed method. The thickness of the fuel film is measured by detecting the intensity of fluorescence from the film that is irradiated by a He-Cd laser. A single optical fiber is used to simultaneously transmit the laser beam and the fluorescence from the film. In addition, the S/N ratio of the fluorescence is improved by using a He-Cd laser of which the wavelength (λ=442nm) is able to efficiently irradiate test fuel doped 2-3-butandione. Using this method, the fuel film thickness on the wall of the PFI engine was analyzed in two case studies.
Technical Paper

Cause of Exhaust Smoke and Its Reduction Methods in an HSDI Diesel Engine Under High-Speed and High-Load Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1160
The cause of the exhaust smoke and its reduction methods in a small DI Diesel engine with a small-orifice-diameter nozzle and common rail F.I.E. were investigated under high-speed and high-load condition, using both in-cylinder observations and Three-dimensional numerical analyses. The following points were clarified during this study. At these conditions, fuel sprays are easily pushed away by a strong swirl, and immediately flow out to the squish area by a strong reverse squish. Therefore, the air in the cavity is not effectively used. Suppressing the airflow in a piston cavity, using such ideas as enlarging the piston cavity diameter or reducing the port swirl ratio, decreases the excessive outflow of the fuel-air mixture into the squish area, and allows the full use of air in the whole cavity. Hence, exhaust smoke is reduced.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1135
In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the HC Behavior in the Air Intake System while Vehicle is Parked

2004-03-08
2004-01-0141
CARB (California Air Resources Board) has required the evaporative emissions to be restricted to 1/4th of the parameter stated in the 1995 regulations. Furthermore, hydrocarbons (hereafter, HC) from the fuel system must be reduced to near 0.0 grams, according to the PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle) regulations enforced from 2003. The wet film in intake ports and fuel leaking from the injector nozzles evaporate and diffuse while the car is parked, and consequently may cause HC to leak the air cleaner inlet. The air cleaner which prevents HC leakage from the air intake system is already in mass production. In the course of designing this product to be installed in a vehicle, the authors developed a method to estimate the amount of HC that reaches the air cleaner. Based on detailed investigation on HC distribution and the changes that occur during parking, the HC amount reaching the air cleaner was calculated by both the equation of diffusion and the equation of state.
Technical Paper

A Measuring Technology to Analyze HC Concentration in the Air Intake System while the Engine is in Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0142
In order to correspond to the exhaust emissions regulations that become severe every year, more advanced engine control becomes necessary. Engine engineers are concerned about the Hydrocarbons (HCs) that flow through the air-intake ports and that are difficult to precisely control. The main sources of the HCs are, the canister purge, PCV, back-flow gas through the intake valves, and Air / Fuel ratio (A/F) may be aggravated when they flow into the combustion chambers. The influences HCs give on the A/F may also grow even greater, which is due to the increasingly stringent EVAP emission regulations, by more effective ventilation in the crankcase, and also by the growth of the VVT-operated angle and timing, respectively. In order to control the A/F more correctly, it is important to estimate the amount of HCs that are difficult to manage, and seek for suitable controls over fuel injection and so on.
Technical Paper

Plate Type Methanol Steam Reformer Using New Catalytic Combustion for a Fuel Cell

2002-03-04
2002-01-0406
Methanol steam reforming, which is an endothermic reaction, needs some heating. Both methanol conversion ratio and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration increase when temperature is elevated. As CO poisons a typical polymer electrolyte of a fuel cell, the relationship between methanol conversion ratio and CO concentration is a trade-off one. It was found from preliminary researches that the reforming reaction speed is controlled by heat transfer rate at large methanol flow rate, where methanol conversion ratio becomes lower and CO concentration becomes higher. Therefore it is necessary to develop a new methanol reforming concept that provides stable combustion for heating and enhanced heat transfer for improving the trade-off relationship and making a compact reformer. Reforming catalyst using metal honeycomb support and a new catalytic combustion were applied to a new concept plate type methanol steam reformer, which is used in a fuel cell of 3 kW-class electric generation.
Technical Paper

Slit Nozzle Injector for A New Concept of Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1902
A direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engine with a new stratified charge combustion concept has been launched on the Japanese domestic market. This new concept consists of two components. First, a thin fan-shaped spray from a slit nozzle enables wide spray dispersion, moderate spray penetration and a fine atomization. Second, a shell-shaped piston cavity allows better mixture formation, however avoiding distinct charge motions (such as tumble or swirl). Simple intake port geometry increases the full load performance. The combustion concept, at the same time allows stratified charge to be used at higher load and at higher engine speeds and improves the homogeneous charge combustion. A new 3L in-line 6 gasoline engine with this combustion concept showed 20% better fuel economy than a 3L port fuel injection (PFI) engine (λ=1 feed back system) under the Japanese 10-15 mode.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Fuel Behavior During the Cold Start Period of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0969
An experimental study was carried out in order to reduce engine-out HC emissions from a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine during the cold start period. The objectives of this study were to investigate the fuel behavior quantified with an analytic method and to propose some practical techniques to reduce the cylinder-wetting fuel volume and engine-out HC emissions. Compared to the MPI (Multi Port Fuel Injection) engine, required fuel volume for DISI engine was reduced during the cold start because intake port wall-wetting was not generated. On the other hand, a large volume of cylinder wetting fuel resulted in engine-out HC emissions. Injection timing, atomization and vaporization of injected fuel affected the cylinder-wetting fuel volume. Above all, Injection of the heated fuel provided good results. In summary, engine-out HC emissions from DISI engine was reduced compared to that of MPI engine during the cold-start period.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Layer Plastic Membrane (Bladder Membrane) for Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank

2001-03-05
2001-01-1120
The Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System (Bladder Tank System) using a flexible plastic membrane (Bladder Membrane) was newly developed in order to reduce the amount of vaporized gasoline in a steel fuel tank. This Bladder Membrane is flexible to expand in proportion to a fuel volume and prevents the permeation of the vaporized gasoline. As a result of our initial study for various materials, we decided to apply a multi-layer plastic material which could achieve both low fuel permeability and good flexibility. This multi-layer material consists of polyethylene(PE) for structural material and polyamide(PA) for low permeability. The modulus of the PE needs to achieve a sufficient flexibility in order to keep the movement of the membrane. While PA material must have not only low fuel permeability but also strong adhesion with the structural material of PE. We also clarify the membrane design to keep a good flexibility and to reduce a strain.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0734
A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Development of Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0729
In succession to the world-first introduction of a mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car into the Japanese market in 1997, Toyota also has introduced an enhanced version of the above to the US and European markets in 2000. Upon introduction of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) into the US market, a drastic reduction of gasoline vapor evaporation from the fuel tank was necessary, in order to meet the most stringent exhaust emission (SULEV) and evaporative emission standards in the world. In order to meet this requirement, a fuel tank system named “Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System” was developed. This is the first commercial application in the world to use a variable tank volume to drastically reduce gasoline vapor generation.
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