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Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of In-cylinder Mixture and Flame Propagation Distribution Measurement Device with Spark Plug Type Sensor

A new method to measure in-cylinder flame propagation and mixture distribution has been developed. The distribution is derived from analyzing the temporal history of flame spectra of CH* and C2*, which are detected by a spark plug type sensor with multi-optical fibers. The validity of this method was confirmed by verifying that the measurement results corresponded with the results of high speed flame visualization and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. This method was also applied to analysis of cyclic combustion fluctuation on start-up in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, and its applicability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of the Relation between Flame Structure and Turbulence in HCCI Combustion by Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurement

The structure of HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion flames was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the two-dimensional gas temperature distribution using phosphor thermometry. It was found from the relation between a turbulent Reynolds number and Karlovitz number that, when compared with the flame propagation in an S.I. engine, HCCI combustion has a wider flame structure with respect to the turbulence scale. As a result of our experimentation for the influence of low temperature reaction (LTR) using two types of fuel, it was also confirmed that different types of fuel produce different histories of flame kernel structure.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Stability After Releasing the Accelerator in a Turn

Vehicle stability after releasing the accelerator during limit cornering (from now on “Tuck-in”) is the behavior that the turning radius of a vehicle gets smaller after releasing the accelerator. This paper presents that the main factors of yaw moment variation by releasing the accelerator are the change of lateral forces due to longitudinal transfer of normal loads, lateral shift of vehicle center of gravity due to vehicle roll and tire lateral deflection, and the change of lateral forces due to deceleration. It also shows that roll stiffness distribution and longitudinal acceleration have an influence through the formulation of turning radius ratio.
Technical Paper

Development of open laboratory automation system

We urgently need to develop the next generation of automotive technology to support energy conservation and the global environment. For this we need an advancement of the Laboratory Automation System (LAS). However, restructuring the hardware and software of the LAS requires enormous amounts of time and costs. To solve the problems of the LAS development, we formed a user-vendor working group, which then established the common rules of LAS and IMACS (Integrated Measurement And Control System). IMACS are software-centered rules, characterized by the stratification of LAS and the interface called software parts. So far, we have integrated IMACS into five engineering fields. A total of 11 testing machine vendors participated in the development. We manufactured about 350 software parts and made their specifications openly available. As the next step, we are collecting software parts by deleting redundant functions.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Technical Service Training in the “Hi-Tech” Era

In recent years, advanced technology has become more and more important in the design of automobiles. Therefore, if we wish our products to continue to display their full potential to the people who buy them, thus ensuring customer satisfaction with our products, we must, even in the area of after-soles service, ensure that the technical proficiency and knowledge of our technicians will continue to keep pace with advances in technology. To do this, we must carry out effective “high-tech” training for our dealer workshops this is our present and future challenge Toyota's technical service training system is now applied to some 50, 000 service technicians in around 10, 000 workshops throughout the world, and the proposed report will introduce this system and give some actual examples of technical training that is actually carried out.
Technical Paper

Measuring System of Transient Temperature Distribution on the Brake Disc Rotor

A system to measure transient temperature distribution on the brake disc rotor at high speed braking has been developed and its measuring principle and configuration were discussed in this paper. This system consists of two revolution sensors and two sets of optical fiber array, photoelectric elements, and microprocessor, which fiber array is so arranged that it faces the brake disc rotor. This new system has the following features: (1) Measuring is made using a visible radiation wavelength range for red hot temperatures higher than 550°C.
Technical Paper

The Development of Integrated CAD/CAM System on Engineering Workstation

This paper describes an integrated CAD/CAM system on an EWS. This system is based on the CAD and CAM systems on large scale computers which have been developed and put into practical use in Toyota Motor Corporation. All the functions of these systems are compactly integrated into this system. We have established the following technologies through its development. (1) A method for construction of data structure common to CAD and CAM (2) A database structure that enables efficient data retrievals Owing to these technologies, a non-expensive integrated CAD/CAM system on an EWS has been developed, which can be introduced in small-sized parts suppliers. This system has already been put into practical use since early 1988, and used by more than ten suppliers. Much more suppliers are also planning to introduce this system in near future.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in Engines by Using a Two-Color High Speed Shutter TV Camera System

A two-color high speed shutter TV camera system has been developed as a new sensing device for measuring the flame temperature in engines. The TV camera system can measure the radiant intensities of high temperature substances accurately and rapidly. And, the two-dimensional temperature distribution can be easily calculated from the radiant intensities by using an image processor. This system is applicable to measurement of flame temperatures in diesel and gasoline engines. The relation between the progress of combustion phenomena and the measured temperature distribution is clearly explained. It is confirmed that the system is effective for measurement of the flame temperature distribution in engines.
Technical Paper

Two-hole Injector Improves Transient Performance and Exhaust, Emissions of 4-valve Engines

One of the main causes of the inadequate transient response of a 4-valve engine was established as being partition wall-wetting. The possibility of resolving this problem by improving fuel atomization was investigated. An air-mix type injector, although producing finer droplets with more uniform distribution, was not found effective in improving transient response. The development of a two-hole injector is described. This new injector produces twin sprays which are directed into the siamese intake ports without wetting the partition wall. As a consequence, the lean A/F ratio excursion is reduced, torque stumble is eliminated and the conversion efficiency of a three-way catalyst is increased.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

Poisoning Deactivations of Automotive Catalysts by Lead and Phosphorus

The deactivation process of automotive catalysts by lead and phosphoruos were studied. The accelerated poisoning test were performed. The activity evaluation and characterisation of poisoned pellet oxidation catalysts showed the following origin of poisoning deactivations. Lead interacts with active materials and phosphorus covers over catalysts to reduce these catalytic performance. In the case of phosphorus and lead co-existence, the activity decreases rapidly because leadphosphate plugges pores of the support. In monolithic catalysts, highly axial distributions of poisons was obserbed. This characteristic distribution is advantageous for the durability of the catalyst.