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Technical Paper

Alert Method for Rear Cross Traffic Alert System in North America

2013-04-08
2013-01-0732
In recent years, a number of different Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) systems have become more and more popular in North American automotive market. The BSM system advises the driver of vehicles travelling in adjacent lanes when these vehicles are also in the driver's outside rearview mirror blind spots. Similarly, when the vehicle is backing up from a parking spot, cross-traffic vehicles can be in the driver's outside mirror blind spots. In this situation, the Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system alerts the driver when the driver shifts the vehicle in the reverse gear and there are approaching cross-traffic vehicles. The benefits of RCTA system was presented by [1]. The RCTA alert studied in this paper is given by playing an audible sound and by flashing the outside mirror indicators. The RCTA and BSM systems share the same vehicle sensors and most of their vehicle components.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1818
The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Thickness in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine using Thin-Film Electrode

2011-08-30
2011-01-2117
Oil film thickness is one of the most important issues for optimization of bearing design. A technique has been developed to measure oil film thickness by noting the change in capacitance between the shaft and a thin-film electrode of several micrometers thickness formed on the surface of a bearing. The authors applied this technique to the main journals of an automobile engine and measured the oil film thickness up to maximum speed and full load. The oil film thickness became thinner with increased engine load, and then turned thicker with increased engine speed.
Journal Article

Research into Engine Friction Reduction under Cold Conditions - Effect of Reducing Oil Leakage on Bearing Friction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1662
Fuel efficiency improvement measures are focusing on both cold and hot conditions to help reduce CO2 emissions. Recent technological trends for improving fuel economy such as hybrid vehicles (HVs), engine start and stop systems, and variable valve systems feature expanded use of low-temperature engine operation regions. Under cold conditions (oil temperature: approximately 30°C), fuel consumption is roughly 20% greater than under hot conditions (80°C). The main cause of the increased friction under cold conditions is increased oil viscosity. This research used the motoring slipping method to measure the effect of an improved crankshaft bearing, which accounts for a high proportion of friction under cold conditions. First, the effect of clearance was investigated. Although increasing the clearance helped to decrease friction due to the oil wedge effect, greater oil leakage reduced the oil film temperature increase generated by the friction.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1274
We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Gears

2006-04-03
2006-01-0895
Newly designed gears are subject to higher loads that demand a steel that is capable of greater pitting resistance. The application of shot peening to gears has been increasing to improve tooth root strength, but pitting resistance had not been necessarily high. This study examines the effect of alloying additions mainly on tempering resistance and the formation of a non-martensitic layer. The developed high Si-Mo type steel shows excellent pitting resistance, even in shot peened gears, as compared to that of conventional steels due to high tempering resistance and the thin, uniform non-martensitic layer. This new steel is of practical use in some multi-speed automatic transmission gears.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1306
Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Toyota AA80E 8-Speed Automatic Transmission with Novel Powertrain Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1311
Toyota has developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for RWD automobiles. The transmission will first be used in the all-new Lexus LS460. In addition, a novel control system has been developed to maximize the predictability, response, efficiency, and initial quality of the powertrain while utilizing the high number of gear steps.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Flow and Spray Atomization in Slit Nozzle for Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1000
The slit nozzle in the fuel injection valve for a direct injection spark ignition gasoline engine forms a thin, fan-shaped spray. The fan-shaped spray is characterized by high dispersion, comparatively high penetration, and fine atomization. This enables it to form a stable air-fuel mixture. However, further improvement of engine performance requires that the spray characteristics (particularly the level of atomization) be improved. Since the spray characteristics are strongly influenced by the fuel flow within the nozzle, it was clarified this effect by visual analyses of the fuel flow inside the nozzle using enlarged acrylic slit nozzles. The results demonstrated that vortices that are formed within the nozzle sac are continuously propagated in a periodic manner within the sac and that they influence the streamline of fuel flow from the sac to the slit.
Journal Article

Development of New Hybrid Transmission for Compact-Class Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0726
A new hybrid transmission has been developed for New compact class vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel economy and achieving the weight reduction and compact size. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed and advanced technology applied. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Con-Rod Big-End Bearing Lubrication on the Basis of Oil Supply Rate

1998-10-19
982439
The purpose of this study is to analyze con-rod bearing lubrication under reduced oil supply rate conditions. An engine was modified to measure the oil supply rate to a con-rod big-end bearing. Then the effects of the oil supply rate on bearing temperatures and the contact between a journal and a bearing were investigated in order to analyze lubrication characteristics. The bearing temperatures increased in accordance with reduced oil supply rate. On the other hand, the contact frequency hardly changed under almost all conditions, but steeply increased near one-third of the standard oil supply rate at the highest speed of 5000 rpm in the experiments. The results show that the reduced oil supply rate decreases the cooling effect but the hydrodynamic lubrication was sufficiently achieved except the above-mentioned severe condition.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Hybrid Transmission for FWD Sports Utility Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0272
1 A new hybrid transmission (P310) has been developed for FWD 3-liter engine class sports utility vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving power performance and fuel economy, achieving the world's top-level weight reduction and compact size, while maintaining high torque capacity. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed, and advanced technology has been applied. Moreover, this hybrid transmission achieves seamless acceleration and quiet performance. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Lead-Added Free-Cutting Steel for Automobile Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1527
A new, free-cutting steel, hereafter referred to as “non-lead-added free-cutting steel”, has been developed with the intention of replacing currently applied lead containing free cutting steel. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a new lead-free steel grade that will contribute to the removal of environmentally harmful substances from automobile parts. In this project, we have targeted the development of a material that would demonstrate levels of machinability and other mechanical properties equivalent to those of the conventional free-cutting steel to which sulfur (S), lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) or combinations, thereof have been added. The fine dispersion of sulfide, modified by adding Mg and Ca, is most effective in enhancing the chip breakability that would otherwise deteriorate due to the absence of lead. The practical application of the non-lead-added free-cutting steel has rendered the goal of total removal of lead from special steel products highly obtainable.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control System Developed for Toyota Mild Hybrid System (THS-M)

2002-03-04
2002-01-1253
Environmental improvement is moving forward, due in part to the reduction of fuel consumption of automatic transmission(AT) vehicles as a result of social requirements in recent years and many measures have been implemented. Adoption of idling stop is a typical example introduced to reduce energy consumption while the vehicle is stopped to improve the urban environment. However, there are problems such as responsiveness and smoothness for an AT vehicle when the engine is stopped with the shift selector in “D” range. To overcome these problems, a new start clutch control system has been developed using an electric oil pump installed in a simple hybrid vehicle called a mild hybrid. As a result, a smooth feeling starting performance is achieved by operating the system in combination with the engine and other systems.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1135
In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational-Angle Difference Between Gears for Gear Noise Under Transient State Using Hilbert Transform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1832
The authors developed a useful analysis method of the rotational-angle of gear under transient state using the Hilbert Transform because the conventional method was not available under the transient state. Here, under the transient state the gear revolution speed was changed from 600r/min to 2000r/min in 0.35 seconds. A key technology of this method was that Hilbert Transform method, which used to be applicable only for steady data was improved so that it could treat transient data. Hence, the following procedures were developed. 1. The rotation of gear-teeth was detected by a gap-sensor pair, which can cancel the measuring error due to fluctuation of gear shaft. 2. The frequency of such signals varied significantly by the gear-revolution speed. Transient gear-teeth detection signals obtained at a constant sampling rate were converted to almost-constant frequency signals over the data series axis using a trigger pulse obtained per gear revolution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Visualized Fuel Flow inside the Slit Nozzle of Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0060
In the direct injection spark ignition gasoline engine (D-4), thin fan-shaped high-dispersion, high-penetration and high-atomization spray formed by the slit nozzle generates a stratified mixture cloud without depending on a strong intake air motion, subsequently realizing stable stratified charge combustion. To improve fuel economy further in actual traffic, the region of stratified charge combustion in torque-engine speed map must be expanded by improving spray characteristics. Since the fuel flow inside the nozzle has a large effect on the spray characteristics, it was clarified this effect by visual analysis of the fuel flow inside the nozzle using an enlarged acrylic slit nozzle of 10 magnifications. Consequently, it was found that vortices are generated frequently within a sac even in the case of steady state conditions. The effect on the spray characteristics is corresponding to the vortex scale.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-0253
In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

A Study of Microgrooved Bearing Performance by using Numerical Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-1338
To meet the requirement for higher performance engine bearings, the microgrooved bearings, that is the plain bearings with shallow circumferential grooves, have been developed. Recently, the performance of microgrooved bearings obtained experimentally have reported1)2). The authors calculated the bearing performance of the microgrooved bearings by elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. In this paper, the authors described thecalculation method and the performance of the microgrooved bearings obtained theoretically.
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