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Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation Mechanism -Influence of Fuel Components and Gasoline Detergents-

1997-05-01
971722
The combustion chamber deposit (CCD) forming tendency of gasoline components and detergents were investigated with laboratory tests ad engine dynamometer tests. In the dynamometer tests, the driving conditions under which fuels and detergents influence CCD formation were specified, and the effects of different gasoline components and detergent blends on CCD formation were examined. In the laboratory tests, the CCD forming process was investigated thoroughly [10]. The CCD forming tendency of aromatic compounds in gasoline were dependent not only on physical properties such as molecular weight, but also chemical structure (number or position of the alkyl substituents of aromatic molecules). As for oxygenates, engine dynamometer tests with MTBE blended gasoline yielded less CCD than the test without MTBE. The CCD forming tendency of detergents correlated with the thermal decompositon tendency of the detergent package and the concentration of the main agents.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Lead-Added Free-Cutting Steel for Automobile Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1527
A new, free-cutting steel, hereafter referred to as “non-lead-added free-cutting steel”, has been developed with the intention of replacing currently applied lead containing free cutting steel. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a new lead-free steel grade that will contribute to the removal of environmentally harmful substances from automobile parts. In this project, we have targeted the development of a material that would demonstrate levels of machinability and other mechanical properties equivalent to those of the conventional free-cutting steel to which sulfur (S), lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) or combinations, thereof have been added. The fine dispersion of sulfide, modified by adding Mg and Ca, is most effective in enhancing the chip breakability that would otherwise deteriorate due to the absence of lead. The practical application of the non-lead-added free-cutting steel has rendered the goal of total removal of lead from special steel products highly obtainable.
Technical Paper

Development of alloy cast iron for press die

2000-06-12
2000-05-0194
This paper describes the development of alloy cast iron that can be used for the cutting edges of the trimming die of a press die. Usually, a block of tool steel or steel casting is inserted at the cutting edge of the trimming die of a press die. However, we unified the structure part and the cutting-edge part of a press die with alloy cast iron. As it can''t bear as the cutting edge in this state, the cutting edge is processed by flame-hardening. After the flame- hardening, we developed the alloy cast iron so that enough hardness may be obtained by natural air cooling. Thereby, the machining of the installation seat of the cutting edge decreased and the expense of dies has been reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Planar Oxygen Sensor

2001-03-05
2001-01-0228
In preparation for compliance with California's SULEV standard and Euro STAGE 4 standard, which will take effect in 2002 and 2005, respectively, we have developed a laminated planar oxygen sensor. The developed sensor has the following characteristics: high thermal conductivity and superior dielectric characteristic, due to direct joining of the heater element alumina substrate and the sensor element zirconia electrolyte; low heat stress at temperature rise, due to optimized heater design; superior sensor protection from water droplets, and improved sensor response, due to optimized arrangement of intake holes in the sensor cover. With these characteristics, the developed oxygen sensor can be activated in 10 seconds after cold start. This report describes the technologies we used to develop the early-activation oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Highly Functional Engine Testing Technology Using an Electric Motor Drive

1999-03-01
1999-01-0943
In contrast to the sensory inspection conventionally performed on the firing bench during final assembly, a technology in which quality inspections are distributed throughout the engine assembly line by using an electric motor to drive the engine, has been developed. Through this process, combustion conditions can be quantitatively tested by component, and leak test conditions can be optimized. Consequently, defects can be detected and their causes identified at an early stage of assembly, thus accelerating the feedback of information to the appropriate process. The result, a level of product quality that is higher than through the conventional means.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850523
This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of Additive Effects on ATF Frictional Properties Using New Test Methods

1990-10-01
902150
A new test machine has been developed which can evaluate vibration due to stick-slip using an actual full-scale clutch pack. Using this machine, a static breakaway friction coefficient measurement test method and a stick-slip test method have been established. Both methods have been shown to provide results which correlate with the results from both a full-scale assembly test and a vehicle shudder evaluation test. The evaluation of the frictional properties of commercial oils using these test methods showed that the static breakaway friction coefficient and the stick-slip properties have generally contradictory performance to each other for automatic transmission. The study of the frictional properties for typical additives and an analysis of the surface of the steel plates with ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that the frictional properties are significantly affected by the additives adsorbed on the clutch plate sliding surface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Milling Mechanism by Ball End-Mill and Development of High Speed Die-Sinking Method

1988-11-01
881742
Various dies have been used for producing many internal and external parts of an automobile. This paper describes the method of ‘High Speed Die-sinking’ that is one of the key technologies for die-making. We analyzed the milling mechanism of a typical Ball End-Mill used for die-sinking and performed cutting tests. As a result, we have achieved high speed and fine quality die-sinking technology. Its feed speed is about four or five times as fast as before, and the irregularity of the milled surface is under one-fifth as compared with previous level. In addition, we will propose the new method for estimating finishing performance by ball end-mill.
Technical Paper

New Plastic Coloring and Forming System

1991-02-01
910363
This paper describes a new plastic coloring and forming system. The system greatly reduces the time and amount of raw materials necessary for color changes, and eliminates the need for manual cleaning during a color change. This system is well-suited for small-lot production with frequent color changes, as well as for automated production systems. The system is being used by auto parts makers, and is practical in a variety of other fields involved with the coloring and forming of plastics.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Plasma Treatment for Painting of Polypropylene Bumper

1985-02-01
850320
The colour painting of polypropylene bumpers has required development of a new polypropylene surface treatment which provides improved adhesion of the paint film to polypropylene. According to the results of various improvement studies on the application of plasma treatment, it has been discovered that surface treatment by means of plasma of an oxygen and nitrogen gas mixture activated by microwave (2,450 MHz) provides a remarkable improvement in adhesion. Furthermore, establishing a technique to diffuse plasma effectively within the treatment chamber has enabled a uniform surface treatment of several polypropylene bumpers formed in large and complicated shapes.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Purpose Robot Controller and its Application for Automotive Industries

1985-02-01
850409
Since the first robot: was introduced into our factory in 1971, about 1250 playback robots have been operated. But processes in which these robots were installed were limited to particular ones such as spot welding, are welding and painting. In many other processes robots have not been installed. Investing the reasons there is a main factor as follows, As to the application of robot, it is hard to evade the diversity of robot type because robots must be different from each other, if the most suitable robots are chosen in setting space, operating area, load capacity, speed and accurary against applied process and work pieces. If standard robots in the market are fitted to various conditions of processes or work pieces, the types of robots increase and many problems are produced on operation and maintenance.
Technical Paper

International Technical Transfer of Automobile Manufacturing

1989-11-01
891264
Automobile production technology has been transferred in the order of "automobile assembly technology", "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology". Transfer of our "automobile assembly technology" has already been nearly 100% completed and, as the manufacture of local parts is promoted and our experiences to undergo model changes are widened, the transfer of "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology" is making a steady progress. The most critical point that makes the technical transfer difficult is the small automobile markets in developing countries where it is impossible to acquire a sufficient production volume which permits satisfactorily low cost. Various measures to secure a sufficient production volume such as exports and complementation within regions have been taken so far, but any remarkable effect has not been achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robot Simulation and Off-Line Programming System

1992-09-01
922120
In Toyota, a robot off-line programming system was developed five years ago for the use at spot welding processes. And it has been effective to reduce and level off the engineering time. This time we have developed the new robot simulation system. It has three newly features so that the system becomes capable of simulating and programming robots from various manufacturers with different functions. As a result, the new system can be applied to a variety of processes in automobile manufacturing. First, a universal robot programming language was developed which includes a variety of commands such as definitions of motion attributes, signals of inputs/outputs, control of program flow, special functions proper to each process, and so on. And the language can be translated to and from any particular programming language using pre / post processor, so the simulation system needs to deal with only one language.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Stamping a Laser-Welded Blank

1993-03-01
930522
In order to achieve higher assembly accuracy for automotive body, increased body rigidity, and decreased stamping and assembly costs in car body manufacturing, a new method of sheet metal stamping has been developed, in which several blanks of different strength and thickness are integrated using CO2 laser-welding. The stamping formability of the laser-welded blank is limited compared with that of the conventional single blank. It is very difficult to predict the exact decrease in formability for different positions of the weld line and for different matching of materials. Because experimental estimations were indispensable for stamping die designers to evaluate formability at the stage of planning dies, many man-hours were spent conducting actual experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Full-Filling Method Joining Ceramic Shaft to Metal Sleeve for High Performance

1993-03-01
930164
Toyota Motor Corporation has mass-produced turbochager with sillicon nitride ceramic rotors. A moment of inertia was reduced by 60% using ceramic rotor which improved turbochager response. The ceramic rotor was joined to metal shaft by new method which compensated problems in both shrink fitting and active brazing methods. They are generals for mechanical and chemical techniques, respectively. There still exist the following disadvantages. It is quite severe to controll the clearance of shrink fitting to obtain the reliability of the joint. The shaft may be loosened at high temperature with a small shrink-fit interference. The large shrink-fit interference could result in a failure of ceramic shaft due to large stress. Those may require a machinig accuracy with micron meter order of surface roughness which, leads to high cost.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

1993-03-01
930163
Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
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