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Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

2011-04-12
2011-01-1393
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1427
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Journal Article

Development of iQ with CVT for USA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1425
TOYOTA has developed the iQ with a 1.3L engine for the Scion brand in USA. Due to the importance of fun-to-drive factor for the Scion brand image, a responsive driving performance is required even with compact packaging and a small engine. In addition, because of the recent attention to global-warming and energy issues on a global scale, development of vehicles with high fuel economy is one of the most important issues for a car manufacturer. Therefore, it is necessary for a vehicle to have both high driving performance and fuel economy. TOYOTA has adopted the CVT-i as the transmission for this purpose. The following were achieved by adopting the CVT-i as the transmission for the iQ(1.3L). 1 Responsive driving performance with shift changes without a time lag.2 Compact transmission for efficient vehicle packaging3 Class-leading fuel economy performance. Moreover, it was developed with adjustments for the US market by improving the shift schedule for a linear acceleration feel.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure Loop EGR System for Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1413
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
Technical Paper

CAE Methodology for Optimizing NVH, Functional Reliability, and Mass Reduction at Engine Concept Design Phase

2011-05-17
2011-01-1511
Due to the global economic downturn and higher environmental awareness, the social demands for low cost and fuel efficient vehicles are increasing. At the same time the engine power is increasing and customer expectations of reliability and NVH levels are increasing. To meet all the requirements, engineers are challenged to design light weight parts with higher performance. However, unconsidered mass reduction carries a risk of compromised NVH, Functional Reliability, and other functional demands. In order to resolve this contradiction, it is important to establish a basic structure with minimum necessary mass at the concept design phase, when there are still many degrees of freedom in the design space. Hence, a multi-objective optimization CAE methodology applicable for designing the basic structure of the Engine system was developed and is detailed below.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

2011-05-17
2011-01-1692
To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Tire and Road Input Modeling for Low-Frequency Road Noise Prediction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1690
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
Journal Article

The Impact of Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Composition on a Euro V HSDI Engine with Advanced DPNR Emissions Control

2009-06-15
2009-01-1903
In an effort to reduce CO2 emissions, governments are increasingly mandating the use of various levels of biofuels. While this is strongly supported in principle within the energy and transportation industries, the impact of these mandates on the transport stock’s CO2 emissions and overall operating efficiency has yet to be fully explored. This paper provides information on studies to assess biodiesel influences and effects on engine performance, driveability, emissions and fuel consumption on state-of-the-art Euro IV compliant Toyota Avensis D4-D vehicles with DPNR aftertreatment systems. Two fuel matrices (Phases 1 & 2) were designed to look at the impact of fuel composition on vehicle operation using a wide range of critical parameters such as cetane number, density, distillation and biofuel (FAME) level and type, which can be found within the current global range of Diesel fuel qualities.
Technical Paper

Improvement of DI Diesel Engine System by Utilizing GTL Fuels Characteristics

2009-06-15
2009-01-1933
Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Rapid Boundary Detection for Model Based Diesel Engine Calibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0741
In recent years, engine control systems have become more and more complex because of the growing pressure to develop technical innovations due to social pressures such as global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels. On the other hand, products must be launched on the market in a timely manner and at low cost. For these reasons, calibration processes have become more sophisticated. It is possible to improve the efficiency of calibration by making good use of models, and a calibration process that incorporates models is called model based calibration (MBC). MBC is a valid means of reducing the number of measurement points to some extent by statistical engine modeling and design of experiment (DoE) methodology which places measurement points in order to maximize modeling accuracy. However, it is still necessary to spend much time carrying out boundary detection testing before DoE.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Plug-In Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0874
Abstract Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in two years.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Power Control using the Capacitance Characteristics of the Fuel Cell

2011-04-12
2011-01-1346
Cold weather operation has been a major issue for fuel cell vehicles (FCV). In order to counteract this effect on FCV operation, an approach for rapid warm-up operation based on : concentration overvoltage increase and conversion efficiency decrease by limiting oxygen or hydrogen supply, was adopted in a running fuel cell hybrid vehicle. In order to adjust the output power response of the fuel cell to the target power of the vehicle, -the inherent capacitance characteristics of the fuel cell were measured- based on the oxidation-reduction reaction and an electric double-layer capacitor, and an equivalent electric circuit model of a fuel cell with the capacitance was constructed. This equivalent electric circuit model was used to develop a power control algorithm to manage absorption of the surplus power, or deviation, to the capacitance.
Technical Paper

A Study of Driver Injury Mechanism in High Speed Lateral Impacts of Stock Car Auto Racing Using a Human Body FE Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-1104
This paper analyzed the mechanisms of injury in high speed, right-lateral impacts of stock car auto racing, and interaction of the occupant and the seat system for the purpose of reducing the risk of injury, primarily rib fractures. Many safety improvements have been made to stock car racing recently, including the Head and Neck Support devices (HANS®), the 6-point restraint harnesses, and the implementation of the SAFER Barrier. These improvements have contributed greatly to mitigating injury during the race crash event. However, there is still potential to improve the seat structure and the understanding of the interaction between the driver and the seat in the continuation of making racing safety improvements. This is particularly true in the case of right-lateral impacts where the primary interaction is between the seat supports and the driver and where the chest is the primary region of injury.
Journal Article

Calibration and Validation of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Model: from Synthetic Gas Testing to Driving Cycle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1244
To meet future stringent emission regulations such as Euro6, the design and control of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will become more complex in order to ensure their optimum operation over time. Moreover, because of the strong pressure for CO₂ emissions reduction, the average exhaust temperature is expected to decrease, posing significant challenges on exhaust after-treatment. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) are already widely used to reduce CO and hydrocarbons (HC) from diesel engine emissions. In addition, DOC is also used to control the NO₂/NOx ratio and to generate the exothermic reactions necessary for the thermal regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and NOx Storage and Reduction catalysts (NSR). The expected temperature decrease of diesel exhaust will adversely affect the CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) conversion efficiency of the catalysts. Therefore, the development cost for the design and control of new DOCs is increasing.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in New Generation Hybrid Vehicle Development

2005-05-16
2005-01-2294
The new gasoline hybrid car, “the Prius”, has achieved both two-liter class power performance and world top-class gas mileage with the new Toyota Hybrid System “THS II”. Compared with the previous THS, the electric motor drive power of the THS II has been boosted by 50% and the weight of this system has been reduced by 20%. This paper describes the NV problems caused by the improvements to the hybrid system, and the countermeasures for them. It also describes the technologies for reduction of engine start vibration. Finally an evaluation method and countermeasures against interior engine noise are described.
Technical Paper

Effects of GTL Fuel Properties on DI Diesel Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3763
Reduction of vehicle exhaust emissions is an important contributor to improved air quality. At the same time demand is growing for new transportation fuels that can enhance security and diversity of energy supply. Gas to Liquids (GTL) Fuel has generated much interest from governments and automotive manufacturers. It is a liquid fuel derived from natural gas, and its properties - sulphur free, low polyaromatics and high cetane number - make it desirable for future clean light-duty diesel engines. In this paper, the effects of distillation characteristics and cetane number of experimental GTL test fuels on direct injection (DI) diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated, together with their spray behaviour and mixing characteristics. The test results show that the lower distillation test fuels produce the largest reductions in smoke and PM emissions even at high cetane numbers. This is linked to the enhanced air/fuel mixing of the lighter fuel in a shorter time.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Predict the Rupture of Spot Welds in Vehicle Crash Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-0533
This paper describes a new method to predict the rupture of spot welds, suitable for vehicle crash simulation. In a crash simulation used for vehicle development process, the calculation is performed assuming that the spot welds in the vehicle do not rupture. However, if some spot welds rupture in test of a prototype vehicle, the simulated deformation and test deformation may not match, resulting in inaccurate estimation of deformation from simulation. Therefore accuracy of predicting the rupture of spot welds is crucial in accurately estimating the deformation and improving reliability of vehicle crash simulation results. The new method to predict the rupture of spot welds which relates axial and shear forces and bending moment of spot weld to stress around nugget has been developed by authors. Based on developed method, the rupture risk of spot welds has been estimated. The new method was applied to estimate the spot weld rupture using three types of specimens.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model

2005-11-09
2005-22-0006
Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0028
A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Recognition Algorithm for Steering Assistance System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1606
This paper gives an outline of the steering assistance system (hereinafter, SAS) and a description of its key technology: the lane recognition algorithm. To accommodate a variety of driving styles, the SAS is equipped with a lane keeping assistance mode (LKA mode) and a lane departure warning mode (LDW mode) that can be selectively set by the driver. The former mode works in combination with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and carries the advantage of relieving the driving load that is placed on the driver. The latter mode has the benefit of reducing the danger of lane departure accidents caused by the driver dozing off and taking his eyes off the road. The newly developed lane recognition ECU has a simple hardware set-up of two 32-bit microcomputers. The lane recognition algorithm was constructed on the basis of a logic process that analyzes pattern edge points and selects a set of edge points that most closely resemble lanemarks.
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