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Toyota's Comprehensive Environmental Technology: Providing Choices for Sustainable Mobility

2011-11-04
In the pursuit of a sustainable transportation systems, Toyota is considering a comprehensive approach pursuing multiple advanced technologies to address three primary issues: GHG, Petroleum Use, and Air Quality. Vehicles must be ready for and affordable to the mass market to provide the customer choices to meet their transportation needs whether it is EV's, Hybrids, Plug-In Hybrids or Fuel Cell Hydrogen Hybrids. Our studies have shown that EVs have the potential to provide significant improvements in energy utilization especially combined with other advanced technologies. Toyota believes that a combination of these technolgies will provide complementary solution that enables a sustainable transportation system. Presenter Takehito Yokoo, Toyota Motor Corporation
Technical Paper

Application of Soap Film Geometry for Low Noise Floor Panels

1999-05-17
1999-01-1799
A method for applying soap film geometry to an automobile body structure has been developed. Its curved surface reduce both interior noise and damping material application because of its high rigidity and uneven deformation mode. This paper demonstrates these mechanism, benchmarks their performance with conventional flat and bead panels and presents an application to the floor panel of an automobile body.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Pulsation Inside Pipe and Study on Exhaust Sound Characteristics of V Type 8 Cylinder Engine - Study on Optimized Front Pipe Junction Structure

1999-05-17
1999-01-1651
The research of pulsation wave propagation inside exhaust pipe installed in V8 engine shows that pulsation from engine was changed by joining two front pipes in entire exhaust pipe. In short, frequency of pulsation inside the pipe is not always equal to engine explosion first order frequency or its harmonics. Accordingly, structure of junction has been studied, which indicated that having volume at junction add engine revolution first order component pressure fluctuation to blow-down wave component and makes exhaust sound worse. This phenomena is caused by irregular explosion interval on each bank of V8 engine and phase delay of propagation at junction.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Wind Noise in Passenger Car Compartment in Consideration of Auditory Masking and Sound Localization

1999-03-01
1999-01-1125
This paper describes a new method for objective evaluation of wind noise in the passenger compartment of a car. The loudness and direction of noise in each frequency band can be estimated by performing analyses based on human hearing properties. Therefore, those wind noise components that are annoying to the passengers or those wind noise components whose source location can be determined by the human listener can be identified objectively. Furthermore, the total loudness of wind noise can be estimated quite precisely by adding the loudness of the frequency bands for noise emanating from the direction of the side window.
Technical Paper

Development of a Shift Control System for Automatic Transmissions Using Information from a Vehicle Navigation System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1095
We developed a new automatic transmission control system that performs shift control for the automatic transmission (A/T) using the road data obtained from the navigation system, which previously had been used only for route guidance, and installed it in a new car, Progrès. This system reads the distance to the approaching corner and its shape based on the vehicle's position data and the data of the approaching road obtained from the navigation system, and determines the optimum gear based on these data and the current vehicle speed to perform optimum shift control in linkage with the driver's driving operation. In this paper, configuration, features and effects of this new A/T control system that takes consideration of navigation data are described.
Technical Paper

Development of Two Layer Flow HVAC Unit

1999-03-01
1999-01-1199
In vehicles using a typical heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) unit, ventilation loss through the cabin accounts for more than 60% of the heating load. This fact has increasingly important because of the low heat source characteristics of today's increasingly efficient engines. In response to this trend, a new type of air conditioning system, a “Two layer flow HVAC unit”, has been developed. This unit sends low humidity fresh intake air to the window neighborhood in order to promote good demist performance and warm recirculated air to the occupant foot area for increased efficiency. With this system, it is possible to reduce the ventilation loss by half and to raise the cabin temperature by 5°C.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on SIDI Efficiency and Emissions

2003-10-27
2003-01-3186
Spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines have the potential to realize significant thermal efficiency improvements compared to conventional port fuel injection engines. The effects of fuel properties on efficiency and emissions have been investigated in a prototype of an Avensis Wagon equipped with a 2.0 liter, 4 cylinder spark ignition, direct injection (SIDI) engine designed to meet US 2000 emission standards. The vehicle employed a close coupled three-way catalyst and a NOx storage and reduction catalyst. Seven matrix fuels were blended to the same RON with varying levels of aromatics, olefins, ethanol, and volatility. Relative thermal efficiency, fuel economy, and tailpipe emissions were measured for the matrix fuels and a base fuel under the FTP LA4 driving cycle. The engine was operated in a lean burn mode in light load condition for approximately half of the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Fuel Octane and Composition Effects on Efficiency and Emissions in a High Compression Ratio SIDI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1950
The effects of fuel octane have been assessed on the efficiency and emissions of a high compression ratio (ε=13) spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. Under low load stratified operation (1200 rpm, ∼20% load), a low octane fuel (RON=84, comprised of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane) yielded higher brake thermal efficiency and significantly lower hydrocarbon emissions than a base gasoline (RON=91). The indicator diagram for the low octane fuel showed evidence for two stage heat release, suggesting the presence of spark induced compression ignition (SICI). These results suggest that higher efficiency under low load stratified conditions can be obtained with lower octane fuels that undergo SICI combustion. The effect of fuel octane under high load was assessed at WOT with a high RON model fuel (RON=103, comprised of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane).
Technical Paper

Effects of CCD on Emissions from DISI Engine Using Different Fuel Distillation Properties

2004-06-08
2004-01-1954
Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in wall-guided stratified charged direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines affect combustion significantly because CCD may disturb the air-fuel mixture formation and, as a result, cause emission deterioration. For the design of engines and fuels, it is therefore important to determine the effects of CCD on emissions from DISI engines. In this study, the effects of CCD on emissions from a DISI engine using different fuel distillation properties were investigated. The study results show that, during stratified charged operation, an increase in CCD increased the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions under high speed conditions and the NOx emissions under the low speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a New DPNR Catalyst

2004-03-08
2004-01-0578
We, at Toyota, have been working to develop a new DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction) system to decrease both PM and NOx emissions by combining the NOx storage-reduction catalyst for direct injection gasoline engines with the most advanced engine control technologies. The purpose of the DPNR catalyst is to decrease PM and NOx in order to purify automotive exhaust gas. To reduce PM emissions, the PM trapping rate and PM oxidizing performance must be improved. Since the deposition of PM increases the pressure drop across the catalytic converter, it should also be suppressed. To attain these objectives, we have developed a new DPNR catalyst by the adoption of a new porous substrate structure and the improvement of the catalyst coating technique. The new DPNR catalyst will be mounted on the Avensis for commercial use in the European market.
Technical Paper

Application of Bioplastics for Automobile and Harmony with Evironment

2004-03-08
2004-01-0731
In order to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the air, we have paid our attention to the use of plastics that are made from plants (below, bioplastics) as replacements for petroleum-based plastics, and we are conducting research on the application of bioplastics as materials for automobiles. In this study, a case study was set, and from the point of view of CO2 emissions, effects of automobile parts that were produced from bioplastics on the reduction of CO2 emissions were quantified using a method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bio-plastics for Automotive Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0730
We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Shift-by-Wire System for Hybrid Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1112
In today's motorized society, various automotive technologies continue to evolve every day. Amid this trend, a new concept with respect to automatic transaxle gear-shifting has been developed. In order to materialize a new concept for shifting operation with a universal design in mind, a system has been developed: a shift-by-wire system developed specifically for hybrid vehicles. The greatest advantage of this new system is the lack of constraints associated with the conventional mechanical linkage to the transaxle. This allows freedom of design for the gear selection module. A revolutionary improvement in the ease of shifting has been realized by taking full advantage of this design freedom. In addition, this system contributes to an innovative design. For improved ease of operation, the operation force of the shift lever of this system has been dramatically reduced. For parking, the driver can engage the parking mechanism of the transaxle at the touch of a switch.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Fuel-Cell Hybrid System - Consideration of High Voltage System -

2004-03-08
2004-01-1304
Toyota Motor Corporation began leasing a new generation fuel cell vehicle the FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) in December 2002. That vehicle includes a new variable voltage power electronics system and uses the Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery system from the Prius hybrid gasoline electric vehicle. This paper describes on-going efforts to model optimum secondary storage systems for future vehicles. Efficiency modeling is presented for the base Ni-MH storage system, an ultra capacitor system and a Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery system. The Li-ion system in combination with a new high efficiency converter shows a 4% improvement in fuel economy relative to the base system. The ultra capacitor system is not as efficient as the base system.
Technical Paper

Electronically-Scanning Millimeter-Wave RADAR for Forward Objects Detection

2004-03-08
2004-01-1122
Recently, the development of advanced automotive technology for excellent safety and convenience has become more active. Efforts have focused on the development of active safety technology. Pre-Crash Systems, such as passenger protection systems activated before a collision or collision speed reduction system, which are categorized between active safety systems and passive safety systems, have been a subject of focus. In such systems, surround sensing technology to predict a collision is the key issue. We developed an electronically scanning millimeter-wave (MMW) RADAR, which uses Digital Beam Forming (DBF) technology, as one of the first in the world for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope and Accelerometer for Vehicle Stability Control System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1113
A silicon micromachined gyroscope (angular rate sensor, yaw rate sensor) and accelerometer for vehicle stability control system is presented. The 5.1mm×4.7mm sensor chip is fabricated with a silicon micromachining process using a SOI (Silicon on Insulator) silicon wafer and a deep reactive ion etching. The sensor chip has a pair of resonators which are mechanically coupled and function as a tuning fork. The resonators are driven by electrostatic force and their movements are detected by capacitively sensing angstrom displacements. This sensor chip works not only as a gyroscope but also as an accelerometer with a single sensor chip. The sensor unit consists of the sensor chip above, a signal processing IC, a microcomputer and an EEPROM. sigma-delta analog-to-digital conversion (sigma-delta ADC) is adopted to realize the digital calibration of sensor properties.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Dynamic Analysis and Validation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1457
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Potassium Storage Components in NOx Catalysts Application of Analytical Techniques and DFT Computations to Catalytic Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1494
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Simplification of Thermal Endurance Tests of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1496
Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).
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