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Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-Diesel Blends with Different ABE Component Ratios in a Constant Volume Chamber

Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is considered a promising alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuel which typically emit less pollutants compared to conventional diesel, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for each individual component during the fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. ABE fuels with different component ratio, (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %), were blended with diesel and tested in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Investigation of the Performance and Emissions of a Port-Fuel Injected SI Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Gasoline

Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and their characteristics suitable for clean combustion, are considered potential fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. As such, n-butanol has received a lot of attention in this regard and has shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is one of the major methods to produce bio-butanol. The goal of this study is to investigate the combustion characteristics of the intermediate product in butanol production, namely ABE, and hence evaluate its potential as an alternative fuel. Acetone, n-butanol and ethanol were blended in a 3:6:1 volume ratio and then splash blended with pure ethanol-free gasoline with volumetric ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% to create various fuel blends.
Journal Article

Spray Visualization and Characterization of a Dual-Fuel Injector using Diesel and Gasoline

This paper focuses on the spray and atomization characteristics of a Dual-Fuel Injector (DFI) which includes a primary and a secondary fuel inlet. Three injectors were analyzed in this study. Apart from the DFI, two conventional diesel injectors were tested as baselines for comparison - a piezo-electric and a solenoid injector. The rail pressures ranged from 200 - 500 bar for the conventional injectors. The DFI was tested first as a single-fuel injector (by sealing the secondary inlet) at pressures ranging from 100 - 300 bar, and then in its dual-fuel mode with the primary inlet pressure ranging from 100 - 300 bar, and the secondary inlet at 25 bar higher than the primary pressure. Injection duration of 0.5 ms was chosen for the experiment. High-speed Mie scattering images were recorded to capture the spray evolution. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements were conducted at different locations in the spray for the acquisition of droplet sizes and velocity distributions.