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Technical Paper

Vehicle Occupant Posture Classification System using Seat Pressure Sensor for Intelligent Airbag

In the intelligent airbag system, the detection accuracy of occupant position is the precondition and plays a vital role to control airbag detonation time and inflated strength during the crash. Through accurately analyzing the seat surface pressure distributions of different occupant sitting position and types, an occupant position recognition approach which purely uses occupant pressure distribution information measured by seat pressure sensors is presented with the method of Support Vector Machine. In the end, the distribution samples with different occupant sitting position and types are used to train and test the recognition approach, and the good validity and accuracy are shown in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Electronic Braking System ECU Software for Commercial Vehicle

Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed from ABS to enhance the brake performance. Based on the early development of controller hardware, this paper starts with an analysis of the definition of EBS. It aims at the software design of electronic control unit, and makes it compiled into the controller in the form of C language by the in-depth study about control strategy of EBS in different braking conditions. Designed controller software is divided into two layers. The upper control strategy includes the recognition algorithm of driver's braking intention, estimation algorithm of the vehicle state, conventional braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of deceleration control and braking force distribution, and emergency braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of brake assist control and ABS control.
Technical Paper

Observed Errors in Distance Estimation

In order to evaluate the variation in distance estimation accuracy, a survey was conducted during which 123 subjects estimated distances to static objects in a roadway setting. The subjects (which included many police officers) tended to underestimate distances to objects that were from 21 to 383 feet away; the average estimation error was −8.6% while the median error was − 22%. The variation in performance among individuals was extremely large, with extreme errors ranging from − 96% to + 811%. The distribution of error did not conform to a Gaussian (normal) distribution because of the skew of the observed error distribution towards large positive errors. Box plots were used to identify nine “outlier” respondents who produced a total of 15 error estimates which were extraordinary in their difference from the rest of the data.
Technical Paper

Integrated Threat Assessment for Trajectory Planning of Intelligent Vehicles

This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
Technical Paper

Control Synthesis for Distributed Vehicle Platoon Under Different Topological Communication Structures

The wireless inter-vehicle communication provide a manner to achieve multi-vehicle cooperative driving, and the platoon of automotive vehicle can significantly improve traffic efficiency and ensure traffic safety. Previous researches mostly focus on the state of the proceeding vehicle, and transmit information from self to the succeeding vehicle. Nevertheless, this structure possesses high requirements for controller design and shows poor effect in system stability. In this paper, the state of vehicles is not only related to the information of neighbor vehicles, while V2V communication transmit information over a wide range of area. To begin with, the node dynamic model of vehicle is described by linear integrator with inertia delay and the space control strategy is proposed with different topological communication structures as BF, LBF, PBF, etc.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Control Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

To meet the new requirements of braking system for modern electrified and intelligent vehicles, various novel electro-mechanical brake boosters (Eboosters) are emerging. This paper is aimed at a new type of the Ebooster, which is mainly consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission and a servo mechanism. Among them, the PMSM is a vital actuator to realize the functions of the Ebooster. To get fast response of the Ebooster system, a novel control strategy employing a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control with current compensation decoupling and current-adjusting adaptive flux-weakening control is proposed, which requires the PMSM can operate in a large speed range and maintain a certain anti-load interference capability. Firstly, the wide speed control strategy for the Ebooster’s PMSM is designed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Underbody Diffusers with Different Angles and Channels

The underbody diffusers are used widely in race cars to improve the flow field structure at the bottom of the car and provide enough downforce. In recent years, passenger cars have begun to use bottom diffuser to improve aerodynamic characteristics, so as to reduce drag and increase downforce. In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of the bus with different underbody diffuser angles and channel numbers are studied by numerical simulation analysis. Firstly, the aerodynamics of the bus under different diffuser inlet and outlet angles are studied, and then an optimal inlet and outlet angle is determined based on the simulation results. Then, using this angle as a constant, the 2, 3, and 4 channel numbers were chosen as the diffuser channel variables to study the influence of the multiple-channel diffusers on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Support Vector Machine Theory Based Shift Quality Assessment for Automated Mechanical Transmission (AMT)

In China there is a strong trend in the application of vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions in considering the complexity of traffic and the convenience of automatic transmissions. As a type of automatic transmission, automated mechanical transmission (AMT) shows great potential to be developed as a main transmission because of its simple structures, easy upgrade from manual transmission (MT) and low price. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new statistic method which could make a good prediction with limited training instances. Compared with Artificial Neutral Network (ANN), SVM can provide better genetic ability. In order to verify the ability of the new method, the model trained by one set of AMT car data was applied on some other AMT vehicles, and the predicted results were compared with subjective rating results by expert drivers and analyzed to identify the potential of this new assessment system.
Technical Paper

The Integrated Control of SBW and 4WS

Steer-by-wire System is a new conception for steering system, which eliminates those mechanical linkages between hand steering wheel and front wheels, and communicates among the driver and wheels by signals and controllers. All these facilities improve the safety and conformability of the vehicle system and get rid of the mechanical constricts. This paper proposed three vehicle stability control strategies, including front wheel control, yaw rate feedback control and yaw rate& acceleration feedback control. We compared these three control methods by simulation and simulator tests. We also studied the integrated control algorithm of Steer-by-Wire System and 4WS, and compared with 2WS for SBW and the classical 4WS.
Technical Paper

Impact Theory Based Total Cylinder Sampling System and its Application

A novel non-destroy repeatable-use impact theory based total cylinder sampling system has been established. This system is mainly composed of a knocking body and a sampling valve. The knocking body impacts the sampling valve with certain velocity resulting in huge force to open the sampling valve and most of the in-cylinder gas has been dumped to one sampling bag for after-treatment. The feasibility and sampling response characteristics of this impact theory based total cylinder sampling system were investigated by engine bench testing. Within 0 to 35°CA ATDC (Crank Angle After Top Dead Center) sample timing 50 percent to 80 percent of in-cylinder mass would be sampled, which was a little less compared with the traditional system. The half decay period of pressure drop was 10 to 20 degrees crank angle within 0 to 60°CA ATDC sample timing, which was about 2-3 times of the traditional system.
Technical Paper

Recognition and Classification of Vehicle Target Using the Vehicle-Mounted Velodyne LIDAR

This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds.
Technical Paper

Develop Hybrid Transit Buses for Chinese Cities1

This paper summarized the first phase research work to develop hybrid transit buses for China, including driving cycle analysis, performance requirements setting, key components first dimensioning, configuration choosing, saving potential estimate and parametric study. Through these fundamental works, we realize that (1) the Chinese urban bus cycle has some specialties compared with foreign ones, and these specialties cause differences on the design criteria and design results of the hybrid buses; (2) the parallel configuration is better than the series one for the Chinese cycle from both fuel consumption and cost points of view.
Technical Paper

Performance Simulation Research on Bus with Air Suspension

Air spring has a variable stiffness characteristic, its vibration frequency is much lower than that of leaf spring and will not vary with load of vehicle. More and more air springs are applied on automobile suspension. A study on the automobile ride comfort, and the controllability and stability about the bus with air suspension is performed in the paper, which is based on multi-body system dynamics.
Technical Paper

The Algorithmic Research of Multi-operating Mode Energy Management System

The traditional energy management algorithm is mainly based on a single driving cycle, it is obvious that many factors might be often neglected by designer, such as different driving cycles would suit for different control strategies. But they tend to make decisions on the balance of torque distribution and battery power that based on a single driving cycle. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve the optimal control in each case. In this paper we introduce a new design concept of Multi-operating mode energy management, a mathematical model of the energy management applied to a hybrid vehicle system is presented. Results of simulations using the model with the Multi-operating mode energy management were compared with results of simulations using a model with the single mode energy management, allowing the energy efficiency evaluation of the proposed energy management system.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.