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Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management Simulation – 1D+1D Electrochemical Battery and 3D Module Modeling on Vehicle System Level

Global concerns on sustainable energy use call for innovative energy conversion technologies. Batteries are key enablers for more sustainable mobility provided the availability of renewable energy sources. Batteries are integrated in battery electric, plug-in hybrid and hybrid electric vehicles. All these applications call for high energy and power density, long lifetime and highest safety. However, there are application-specific objectives like different load profiles and thus specific durability and safety criteria. A single design of a battery cell cannot optimally comply with all envisaged application areas. Tailoring battery designs to a specific application with the aim of approaching engineering limits represents a significant challenge. Virtual prototyping with predictive models is one key enabler to frontload the development process. This is important in the light of the outlined challenges, which cover a broad range of spatial and temporal scales.