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Technical Paper

PIV and DBI Experimental Characterization of Air Flow-Spray Interaction and Soot Formation in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine Using a Real Bowl Geometry Piston

2019-09-09
2019-24-0100
With demanding emissions legislations and the need for higher efficiency, new technologies for compression ignition engines are in development. One of them relies on reducing the heat losses of the engine during the combustion process as well as to devise injection strategies that reduce soot formation. Therefore, it is necessary a better comprehension about the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution inside the cylinder and how it is affected by the interaction between air flow motion and fuel spray. Furthermore, new diesel engines are characterized by massive decrease of NOx emissions. Therefore, considering the well-known NOx-soot trade-off, it is necessary a better comprehension and overall quantification of soot formation and how the different injection strategies can impact it.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel Technology Applied in Mild and Full Hybrid Powertrains

2019-09-09
2019-24-0115
The increasingly stringent emissions regulations together with the demand of highly efficient vehicles from the customers, lead to rapid developments of distinct powertrain solutions, especially when the electrification is present in a certain degree. The combination of electric machines with conventional powertrains diversifies the powertrain architectures and brings the opportunity to save energy in greater extents. On the other hand, alternative combustion modes as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to provide simultaneous ultra-low NOx and soot emissions with similar or better thermal efficiency than conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In addition, it is necessary to introduce more renewable fuels as ethanol to reduce the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere, also called well-to-wheel (WTW) emission, in the transport sector.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Spray Evaporation and Mixing Using Blends of Commercial Gasoline and Diesel Fuels in Engine-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0843
Recent studies have shown that the use of highly premixed dual fuel combustion reduces pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in CI engines. The most common strategy for dual fueling is to use two injection systems. Port fuel injection for low reactivity fuel and direct injection for high reactivity fuel. This strategy implies some severe shortcomings for its real implementation in passenger cars such as the use of two fuel tanks. In this sense, the use of a single injection system for dual fueling could solve this drawback trying to maintain pollutant and efficiency benefits. Nonetheless, when single injection system is used, the spray characteristics become an essential issue. In this work the fundamental characteristics of dual-fuel sprays with a single injection system under non-evaporating engine-like conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Influence of Direct-Injected Fuel Properties on Performance and Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Running Under RCCI Combustion Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0250
The dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) allows an effective control of the combustion process by means of modulating the in-cylinder fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. This strategy has been found to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with diesel-like or better thermal efficiency in a great part of the engine map. The role of the low reactivity fuel properties and engine settings over RCCI combustion has been widely investigated in literature, concluding that the direct-injected fuel injection timing is a key parameter for controlling the in-cylinder fuel stratification. From this, it can be inferred that the physical and chemical characteristics of the direct-injected fuel should have also an important role on the RCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

Soot Characterization of Diesel/Gasoline Blends Injected through a Single Injection System in CI engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0048
In the past few years’ various studies have shown how the application of a highly premixed dual fuel combustion for CI engines leads a strong reduction for both pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. In particular a drastic soot and NOx reduction were achieved. In spite of the most common strategy for dual fueling has been represented by using two different injection systems, various authors are considering the advantages of using a single injection system to directly inject blends in the chamber. In this scenario, a characterization of the behavior of such dual-fuel blend spray became necessary, both in terms of inert and reactive ambient conditions. In this work, a light extinction imaging (LEI) has been performed in order to obtain two-dimensional soot distribution information within a spray flame of different diesel/gasoline commercial fuel blends. All the measurements were conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0220
Engine Combustion Network promotes fundamental investigations on a number of different spray configurations with the goal of providing experimental results under highly controlled conditions for CFD validation. Most of the available experiments up to now have been obtained in spray vessels, which miss some of the interactions governing spray evolution in the combustion chamber of an engine, such as the jet wall interaction and the transient conditions in the combustion chamber. The main aim of the present research is to compare the results obtained with a three-hole, 90 μm injector, known as ECN’s Spray B, in these constant-volume vessels and more recent Heavy-Duty engines with those obtained in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine, under inert and reactive conditions, using n-dodecane. In-cylinder conditions during the injection were estimated by means of a 1-D and 0-D model simulation, accounting for heat transfer and in-cylinder mass evolution.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Fuel Temperature Variations Along a Solenoid Operated Common-Rail Ballistic Injector by Means of an Adiabatic 1D Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0275
Most studies about common-rail diesel injection consider the fuel flow along the injector as isothermal. This hypothesis is arguable given the small diameter of the orifices along which the fuel flows, together with the expansions that take place across them. These phenomena may provoke variations in the fuel temperature, which in turn modify the fuel properties (i.e. viscosity, density, speed of sound…), thus influencing injector dynamics as well as the fuel atomization and mixing processes. The present investigation accounts for these effects by means of a 1D model for the fuel flow along a common-rail ballistic injector. Local variations of fuel temperature and pressure are considered by the model thanks to the implementation of the adiabatic flow hypothesis.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Spray Development One-Way Coupling Methodology for a Multi-Hole GDi Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0031
The use of predictive models in the study of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) allows reducing developing cost and times. However, those models are challenging due to the complex and multi-phase phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, but also because of the different spatial and temporal scales in different components of the injection systems. This work presents a methodology to accurately simulate the spray by Discrete Droplet Models (DDM) without experimentally measuring the injector mass flow rate and/or momentum flux. Transient nozzle flow simulations are used instead to define the injection conditions of the spray model. The methodology is applied to a multi-hole Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) injector. Firstly, the DDM constant values are calibrated comparing simulation results to Diffused Back-light Illumination (DBI) experimental technique results. Secondly, transient nozzle flow simulations are carried out.
Technical Paper

Surrogate Fuel Formulation to Improve the Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel Combustion Operation at Different Operating Conditions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2073
Dual-mode dual-fuel combustion is a promising combustion concept to achieve the required emissions and CO2 reductions imposed by the next standards. Nonetheless, the fuel formulation requirements are stricter than for the single-fuel combustion concepts as the combustion concept relies on the reactivity of two different fuels. This work investigates the effect of the low reactivity fuel sensitivity (S=RON-MON) and the octane number at different operating conditions representative of the different combustion regimes found during the dual-mode dual-fuel operation. For this purpose, experimental tests were performed using a PRF 95 with three different sensitivities (S0, S5 and S10) at operating conditions of 25% load/950 rpm, 50%/1800 rpm and 100%/2200 rpm. Moreover, air sweeps varying ±10% around a reference air mass were performed at 25%/1800 rpm and 50%/1800 rpm. Conventional diesel fuel was used as high reactivity fuel in all the cases.
Technical Paper

Aging of a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector and Its Effect on the Rate of Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0829
In order to comply with the increasingly restrictive limits of emissions and fuel consumption, researches are focusing on improving the efficiency of combustion engines. In this area, the aging of the injector and its effect on the injection development is not entirely analyzed. In this work, the rate of injection of a diesel injector at different stages of its lifetime is analyzed. To this end, a multi-hole piezoelectric injector was employed, comparing the injection rate measured at the beginning of its lifetime to the rate provided by the injector after aging, maintaining the same boundary conditions in both measurements. Injection pressures up to 200 MPa were used throughout the experiments. The results showed that the steady-state rate of injection was lower after the injector aged. Furthermore, the injector took a longer time to close the needle and end the injection, in comparison with the measurements done at earlier stages of its lifetime.
Journal Article

Infrared/Visible Optical Diagnostics of RCCI Combustion with Dieseline in a Compression Ignition Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0557
Compression ignition engines are widely used for transport and energy generation due to their high efficiency and low fuel consumption. To minimize the environmental impact of this technology, the pollutant emissions levels at the exhaust are strictly regulated. To reduce the after-treatment needs, alternative strategies as the low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts are being investigated recently. The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) uses two fuels (direct- and port- injected) with different reactivity to control the in-cylinder mixture reactivity by adjusting the proportion of both fuels. In spite of the proportion of the port-injected fuel is typically higher than the direct-injected one, the characteristics of the latter play a main role on the combustion process. Use of gasoline for direct injection is attractive to retard the start of combustion and to improve the air-fuel mixing process.
Journal Article

Particulates Size Distribution of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) on a Medium-Duty Engine Fueled with Diesel and Gasoline at Different Engine Speeds

2017-09-04
2017-24-0085
This work investigates the particulates size distribution of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, a dual-fuel concept which combines the port fuel injection of low-reactive/gasoline-like fuels with direct injection of highly reactive/diesel-like fuels. The particulates size distributions from 5-250 nm were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer at six engine speeds, from 950 to 2200 rpm, and 25% engine load. The same procedure was followed for conventional diesel combustion. The study was performed in a single-cylinder engine derived from a stock medium-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine of 15.3:1 compression ratio. The combustion strategy proposed during the tests campaign was limited to accomplish both mechanical and emissions constraints. The results confirms that reactivity controlled compression ignition promotes ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions in the points tested.
Journal Article

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Area in Near-Field Diesel Spray Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0859
The dense spray region in the near-field of diesel fuel injection remains an enigma. This region is difficult to interrogate with light in the visible range and difficult to model due to the rapid interaction between liquid and gas. In particular, modeling strategies that rely on Lagrangian particle tracking of droplets have struggled in this area. To better represent the strong interaction between phases, Eulerian modeling has proven particularly useful. Models built on the concept of surface area density are advantageous where primary and secondary atomization have not yet produced droplets, but rather form more complicated liquid structures. Surface area density, a more general concept than Lagrangian droplets, naturally represents liquid structures, no matter how complex. These surface area density models, however, have not been directly experimentally validated in the past due to the inability of optical methods to elucidate such a quantity.
Journal Article

Numerical Methodology for Optimization of Compression-Ignited Engines Considering Combustion Noise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0193
It is challenging to develop highly efficient and clean engines while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort, and drivability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise accounts for about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The experimental investigation of noise generation is difficult due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient numerical strategies in order to gain a better understanding of the combustion noise mechanisms. In this work, a novel methodology was developed, combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and genetic algorithm (GA) technique to optimize the combustion system hardware design of a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, with respect to various emissions and performance targets including combustion noise.
Journal Article

Study of Air Flow Interaction with Pilot Injections in a Diesel Engine by Means of PIV Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0617
With ever-demanding emission legislations in Compression Ignition (CI) engines, new premixed combustion strategies have been developed in recent years seeking both, emissions and performance improvements. Since it has been shown that in-cylinder air flow affects the combustion process, and hence the overall engine performance, the study of swirling structures and its interaction with fuel injection are of great interest. In this regard, possible Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) distribution changes after fuel injection may be a key parameter for achieving performance improvements by reducing in-cylinder heat transfer. Consequently, this paper aims to gain an insight into spray-swirl interaction through the analysis of in-cylinder velocity fields measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) when PCCI conditions are proposed. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine with bowl-in-piston geometry.
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