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Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Approach for Non-Intrusive Closed-Loop Heat Release Estimation in Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0314
Over the past years, policies affecting pollutant emissions control for Diesel engines have become more and more restrictive. In order to meet such requirements, innovative combustion control methods have currently become a key factor. Several studies demonstrate that the desired pollutant emission reduction can be achieved through a closed-loop combustion control based on in-cylinder pressure processing. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cylinder pressure sensors for on-board application have been recently developed, large scale deployment of such systems is currently hindered by unsatisfactory long term reliability and high costs. Whereas both the accuracy and the reliability of pressure measurement could be improved in future years, pressure sensors would still be a considerable part of the cost of the entire engine management system.
Technical Paper

Primary Breakup Model for Turbulent Liquid Jet Based on Ligament Evolution

2012-04-16
2012-01-0460
The overall performance of direct injection (DI) engines is strictly correlated to the fuel liquid spray evolution into the cylinder volume. More in detail, spray behavior can drastically affect mixture formation, combustion efficiency, cycle to cycle engine variability, soot amount, and lubricant contamination. For this reason, in DI engine an accurate numerical reproduction of the spray behavior is mandatory. In order to improve the spray simulation accuracy, authors defined a new atomization model based on experimental evidences about ligament and droplet formations from a turbulent liquid jet surface. The proposed atomization approach was based on the assumption that the droplet stripping in a turbulent liquid jet is mainly linked to ligament formations. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation method was adopted for the continuum phase while the liquid discrete phase is managed by Lagrangian approach.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cylindrical, k, and ks Diesel Nozzle Shape on the Injector Internal Flow Field and on the Emerging Spray Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-1428
Today, multi-hole Diesel injectors can be mainly characterized by three different nozzle hole shapes: cylindrical, k-hole, and ks-hole. The nozzle hole layout plays a direct influence on the injector internal flow field characteristics and, in particular, on the cavitation and turbulence evolution over the hole length. In turn, the changes on the injector internal flow correlated to the nozzle shape produce immediate effects on the emerging spray. In the present paper, the fluid dynamic performance of three different Diesel nozzle hole shapes are evaluated: cylindrical, k-hole, and ks-hole. The ks-hole geometry was experimentally characterized in order to find out its real internal shape. First, the three nozzle shapes were studied by a fully transient CFD multiphase simulation to understand their differences in the internal flow field evolutions. In detail, the attention was focused on the turbulence and cavitation levels at hole exit.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1180
The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Journal Article

Assessment of Advanced SGS Models for LES Analysis of ICE Wall-Bounded Flows - Part I: Basic Test Case

2016-03-14
2016-01-9041
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) represents nowadays one of the most promising techniques for the evaluation of the dynamics and evolution of turbulent structures characterizing internal combustion engines (ICE). In the present paper, subdivided into two parts, the capabilities of the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM® v2.3.0 are assessed in order to evaluate its suitability for engine cold flow LES analyses. Firstly, the code dissipative attitude is evaluated through an inviscid vortex convection test to ensure that the levels of numerical dissipation are compatible with LES needs. Quality and completeness estimators for LES simulations are then proposed. In particular the Pope M parameter is used as a LES completeness indicator while the LSR parameter provides useful insights far calibrating the grid density. Other parameters such as the two-grid LESIQk index are also discussed.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of the Geometrical Shape of ks-hole and Comparison of its Fluid Dynamic Performance Respect to Cylindrical and k-hole Layouts

2013-09-08
2013-24-0008
Diesel engine performances are strictly correlated to the fluid dynamic characteristics of the injection system. Actual Diesel engines employ injector characterized by micro-orifices operating at injection pressure till 20MPa. These main injection characteristics resulted in the critical relation between engine performance and injector hole shape. In the present study, the authors' attention was focused on the hole geometry influence on the main injector fluid dynamic characteristics. At this purpose, three different nozzle hole shapes were considered: cylindrical, k, and ks nozzle shapes. Because of the lack of information available about ks-hole real geometry, firstly it was completely characterized by the combined use of two non-destructive techniques. Secondly, all the three nozzle layouts were characterized from the fluid dynamic point of view by a fully transient CFD multiphase simulation methodology previously validated by the authors against experimental results.
Journal Article

Combustion Indexes for Innovative Combustion Control

2017-09-04
2017-24-0079
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at combustion control improvement. Nowadays, performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for drivability improvement, efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial when innovative combustions (such as LTC or RCCI) are performed, due to the high instability and the high sensitivity with respect to the injection parameters that are associated to this kind of combustion. Aging of all the components involved in the mixture preparation and combustion processes is another aspect particularly challenging, since not all the calibrations developed in the setup phase of a combustion control system may still be valid during engine life.
Journal Article

Combination of In-Cylinder Pressure Signal Analysis and CFD Simulation for Knock Detection Purposes

2009-09-13
2009-24-0019
A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving engine performance and diagnosis strategies. The paper aim is a better understanding of the phenomena involved in knocking combustions through the combination of CFD and signals analysis tools. CFD simulations have been used in order to reproduce knock effect on the in-cylinder pressure trace. In fact, the in-cylinder pressure signal holds information about waves propagation and heat losses: for the sake of the diagnosis it is important to relate knock severity to knock indexes values. For this purpose, a CFD model has been implemented, able to predict the combustion evolution with respect to Spark Advance, from non-knocking up to heavy knocking conditions. The CFD model validation phase is crucial for a correct representation of both regular and knocking combustions: the operation has been carried out by means of an accurate statistical analysis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

2019-04-02
2019-01-1132
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI. It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines).
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