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Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heterogeneous Concentration Distribution of a Fuel-Air Mixture

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the flame propagation characteristics in the presence of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of a fuel-air mixture in order to provide fundamental knowledge of the effects of gaseous mixture concentration heterogeneity on the combustion process. Different propane-air mixture distributions were produced by the reciprocating movements of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The mean equivalence ratio of the fuel-air mixture was varied from 0.7 on the lean side to 1.6 on the rich side, the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber was also varied at levels of 0.185 m/s, 0.130 m/s, 0.100 m/s, and 0.0 m/s. By an independent control of the mixture distribution and the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, the flame structure and flame propagation speed at various heterogeneous levels of the mixture distribution were investigated in detail.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in DI Gasoline Engine Sprays with Split Injection Strategy via Laser Absorption and Scattering (LAS) Technique

In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Concentration Distributions in a D.I. Gasoline Spray by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique

To get quantitative measurements of liquid and vapor phase concentration distributions in a gasoline spray, a laser-based absorption and scattering (LAS) technique was developed. The LAS technique adopts ultraviolet and visible lasers as light sources and a test fuel, which absorbs the ultraviolet light but does not absorb the visible light, instead of gasoline. The LAS principle is based on the incident light extinction in the ultraviolet band due to both vapor absorption and droplets scattering, whereas in the visible band, the incident light extinction is due only to the droplet scattering. The absorption spectra and molar absorption coefficients of the candidate test fuels including p-xylene, benzene and toluene, all of which have physical properties similar to gasoline, were investigated, and p-xylene was finally selected as a test fuel. Measurement accuracy of the LAS technique was discussed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in D.I. Gasoline Sprays by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique - Effect of Injection Conditions

Mixture formation processes play a vital role on the performance of a D.I. Gasoline engine. Quantitative measurement of liquid and vapor phase concentration distribution in a D.I. gasoline spray is very important in understanding the mixture formation processes. In this paper, an unique laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was employed to investigate the mixture formation processes of a fuel spray injected by a D.I. gasoline injector into a high pressure and temperature constant volume vessel. P-xylene, which is quite suitable for the application of the LAS technique, was selected as the test fuel. The temporal variations of the concentration distribution of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were quantitatively clarified. Then the effects of injection pressure and quantity on the concentration distributions of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.
Technical Paper

Fuel Droplet Size Distribution in Diesel Combustion Chamber

In order to determine spray droplet size in a diesel engine, fuel was injected into high-pressure, room-temperature gaseous environments with a diesel engine injection system. Droplet size was measured using the liquid immersion sampling technique with a mixture of water-methylcellulose solution and ethanol used as an immersion liquid for diesel fuel oil. The volume distribution of diesel spray droplets is well correlated with chi square distribution with freedom, ϕ = 8, in the range of this investigation. The Sauter mean diameter increased with increasing back pressure, with the amount of fuel in a spray, and with decrease in pump speed. An empirical correlation was developed between effective injection pressure, air density, the quantity of the fuel delivery, and the Sauter mean diameter of spray droplets.
Technical Paper

Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
Technical Paper

Effects of ratio and dwell of split injection on fuel spray and mixture formation process under evaporating, non-reacting condition

The effects of split injections of a diesel spray was evaluated in a constant volume chamber under evaporating, non-reacting condition. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was utilized for the mixture concentration measurement, using a diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis. While fixing the total injected fuel mass of 5.0 mg/hole, the effects of split ratio in mass basis and the dwell time (or injection interval) were investigated. Among the split ratios conducted in the current study (3,7, 5:5 and 7:3), the split ratio of 7:3 was the optimum for lean mixture formation regarding the overall distribution of the equivalence ratio at end-of-injection (EOI) timing. The air entrainment wave at the EOI timing of the first injection allowed the fuel at the vicinity of the nozzle to become leaner at a faster rate.