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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Combustion Chamber Configuration, Intake Temperature, and Coolant Temperature in a HCCI Optical Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1765
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2011-08-30
2011-01-1931
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Smokeless Combustion within a Small-Bore HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Narrow Angle Injector

2007-04-16
2007-01-0203
Combustion processes employing different injection strategies in a High-Speed Direct Inject (HSDI) diesel engine were investigated using a narrow angle injector (70 degree). Whole-cycle combustion was visualized using a high-speed digital video camera. The liquid spray evolution process was imaged by the Mie-scattering technique. Different injection strategies were employed in this study including early pre-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection, post-TDC injection, multiple injection strategies with an early pre-TDC injection and a late post-TDC injection. Smokeless combustion was obtained under some operating conditions. Compared with the original injection angle (150 degree), some new combustion phenomena were observed for certain injection strategies. For early pre-TDC injection strategies, liquid fuel impingement is observed that results in some newly observed fuel film combustion flame (pool fires) following an HCCI-like weak flame.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Modeling of Liquid Cooling Networks in Vehicle Thermal Management Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0386
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results for a HSDI Diesel Engine Operating Under HCCI Mode

2006-04-03
2006-01-1519
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Model for Predicting Hand Prehensile Movements

2006-07-04
2006-01-2329
A prediction model for hand prehensile movements was developed and validated. The model is based on a new approach that blends forward dynamics and a simple parametric control scheme. In the development phase, model parameters were first estimated using a set of hand grasping movement data, and then statistically analyzed. In the validation phase, the model was applied to novel conditions created by varying the subject group and size of the object grasped. The model performance was evaluated by the prediction errors under various novel conditions as compared to the benchmark values with no extrapolation. Analyses of the model parameters led to insights into human movement production and control. The resulting model also offers computational simplicity and efficiency, a much desired attribute for digital applications.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0649
The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Tripod Constant Velocity (CV) Joint Friction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0582
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints.
Technical Paper

Two-Photon Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide in a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1201
In-cylinder concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in a diesel engine were studied using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique that employs two-photon excitation. Two-photon NO LIF images were acquired during the expansion and exhaust portions of the engine cycle providing useful NO fluorescence signal levels from 60° after top dead center through the end of the exhaust stroke. The engine was fueled with the oxygenated compound diethylene glycol diethyl ether to minimize soot within the combustion chamber. Results of the two-photon NO LIF technique from the exhaust portion of the cycle were compared with chemiluminescence NO exhaust-gas measurements over a range of engine loads from 1.4 to 16 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. The overall trend of the two-photon NO LIF signal showed good qualitative agreement with the NO exhaust-gas measurements.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

2007-04-16
2007-01-0617
Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Multiple Scattering in a Hollow-Cone Spray

2007-04-16
2007-01-0648
Laser diagnostics of fuel sprays are often hampered by multiple scattering effects. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) and Mie scattering images of a spray are presented, and the effects of multiple signal scattering are explored. A hollow-cone spray is cut in half with a spray cutter, and then imaged from either side. In one set, signal passes through the spray to the camera (back-cut images), and in the other set it does not (front-cut images), showing the effect of passing the signal through the spray to the camera. The cut spray is characterized with a phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) is seen to range from 10-30 μm. Operational guidelines for using the cutter are presented. It was determined that a film forms on the cutter face 3-5 ms after the start of injection (ASOI) depending on the cutter temperature. Stripped droplets from this film increase droplet concentration and SMD in the center of the spray if the cutter is used improperly.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics of Multi-component Bio-fuel Systems under Micro-explosion Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0937
A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion.
Technical Paper

Developing Flow Map for Two-Phase R134a after Expansion Device

2008-04-14
2008-01-0736
This paper presents a mapping of developing adiabatic two-phase R134a flow directly after the expansion valve until the flow is “fully developed” in a 15.3mm inner diameter pipe. Flow characteristics of separation distance, flow type in the homogenous region, void fraction as a function of tube length, and fully developed flow region void fraction and regime were quantified and described.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines using Multiple Injection Strategies

2008-04-14
2008-01-1388
Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization in an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Operated in Low-Temperature Combustion Mode with Bio-diesel and Diesel Fuels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1390
An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion processes for European low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel, and their blends at different blending ratio. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were investigated under similar loads. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern and the heat release rate peak became smaller with injection timing retardation for all test fuels.
Technical Paper

Improving Energy Efficiency in Automotive Vapor Compression Cycles through Advanced Control Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0267
This paper presents an experimental analysis of the performance of various control strategies applied to automotive air conditioning systems. A comparison of the performance of a thermal expansion valve (TEV) and an electronic expansion valve (EEV) over a vehicle drive cycle is presented. Improved superheat regulation and minor efficiency improvements are shown for the EEV control strategies. The efficiency benefits of continuous versus cycled compressor operation are presented, and a discussion of significant improvements in energy efficiency using compressor control is provided. Dual PID loops are shown to control evaporator outlet pressure while regulating superheat. The introduction of a static decoupler is shown to improve the performance of the dual PID loop controller. These control strategies allow for system capacity control, enabling continuous operation and achieving significant energy efficiency improvements.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of an HSDI Engine Using Multiple Injection Schemes with Soybean Biodiesel, Diesel and Their Blends

2009-04-20
2009-01-0719
The KIVA-3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, with modifications that improve its capability with biodiesel simulations was used to model the operation of an HSDI engine using blends of soybean biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel and their blends with diesel are frequently used to reduce emissions from diesel engines, although previous studies showed that biodiesel may increase NOx emission. The paradox may be resolved by running the engine in low temperature combustion mode with biodiesel/diesel blends, as low temperature combustion simultaneously reduced NOx and soot. The modified KIVA code predicts the major combustion characteristics: peak combustion pressure, heat release rate and ignition timing accurately when compared with experimental measurements. It also correctly predicts the trend of NOx emissions. It was observed that the cylinder temperature distribution has a strong effect on emission levels.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of a High Speed Direction Injection Engine Using MVCO Injector and Conventional Fuel Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-0718
The operation of a small bore high speed direct injection (HSDI) engine with a MVCO injector is simulated by the KIVA 3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MVCO injector extends the range of injection timings over conventional injectors and it extra flexibility in designing injection schemes. Combustion from very early injection is observed with MVCO injections but not with conventional injection. This improves the fuel economy of the engine in terms of lower ISFC. Even better efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel, which may be due to extra oxygen in the fuel improving the combustion process. Biodiesel sees a longer ignition delay for the initial injection. It also exhibits a faster burning rate and shorter combustion duration. Biodiesel also lowered both NOx and soot emissions. This is consistent with the general observation for soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Adaptive PCCI Combustion Using Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector – Key Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1528
This paper presents the latest results for a new high efficiency clean diesel combustion system – Adaptive PCCI Combustion (a premixed charge compression ignition mixed-mode combustion) using a micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector. Key characteristics of the new combustion system such as low NOx and soot emissions, high fuel efficiency, increased engine torque are presented through KIVA simulation results. While early premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion reduces engine-out NOx and soot, it's limited to partial loads by known issues such as combustion control, high HC and CO, and high pressure rise rate, etc. Conventional combustion is well controlled diffusion combustion but comes with high NOx and soot. Leveraging the key merits of PCCI and conventional combustion in a practical engine is both meaningful and challenging.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Open-Wheel Race-Car Front Wings

1998-11-16
983042
An experimental study was performed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to quantify the performance and flowfield effects of two-element open-wheel-race-car front wing configurations. Four distinct configurations were tested in- and out-of-ground effect and at various speeds (Reynolds numbers), angles of attack, and flap positions. A splitter plate was installed in the wind tunnel to act as the ground plane. Data presented include balance force measurements, surface pressure data, and downstream flow measurements using a seven-hole probe. Results show that these elementary factors in the design of race-car front wings have a significant effect on wing performance and behavior of the downstream flowfield.
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