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Technical Paper

Multiple Laser Sheet Imaging Investigation of Turbulent Flame Structure in a Spark Ignition Engine

A range of multiple and sequential Mie scattering imaging techniques have been employed to investigate turbulent flame propagation in a relatively quiescent optically accessed two-stroke spark ignition engine. Flame structure and turbulence scales have been characterised by a number of methods. These include fractal analysis, simple flame perimeter to area ratios and techniques based on Fourier analysis of an independent stationary coordinate. From this was derived an integral scale of flame wrinkling and a parameter related to turbulent flame thickness. Fully developed values of these turbulence parameters proved independent of cyclic variation, mixture strength and (apart from increasing flame thickness) apparent flame extinction. Islands of unburned gas behind the flame front were associated with encirclement by large scale structures rather than partial quench or total quenching due to flame stretch.
Technical Paper

Spatial Structure in End-Gas Autoignition

Numerical investigations are reported on the location of sites at which autoignition first develops in the end-gas ahead of a spark-ignited flame in a combustion chamber following rapid compression of an alkane + air mixture to high pressures and temperatures. Attention is drawn to the part played by the reactions that give rise to a negative temperature coefficient of reaction rate in an inhomogeneous temperature field. A ‘reduced’ kinetic mechanism was employed to model the spontaneous oxidation of n-alkanes. Flame propagation was described in terms of the ‘eddy dissipation concept’ and coupled to the more detailed mechanism by means of a switching algorithm. The CFD calculations were performed by use of KIVA II.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Effect of Supercharging on Cycle-To-Cycle Variation in a Two-Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

Fluctuations in the operational output of spark ignition engines are observed from one engine cycle to the other, when an engine is run at technically identical operating condition. These fluctuations known as cycle-to-cycle variations, when high, adversely affect the performance of an engine. Reduction in cycle-to-cycle variation in engines has been noted by researchers as one of the methods of improving engine efficiency and operational stability. This study investigated the combustion performance characteristics of two fuels: E5 (95% gasoline and 5% ethanol) and ULG98 (unleaded gasoline) in a spark ignition engine, operating at varying inlet pressure conditions and ignition timing. A two-stroke, 80mm bore, spark ignition engine was operated at an engine speed of 750 rpm, inlet pressures of 1.6 and 2.0 bar and spark-timings ranging from 2 to 13 bTDC. A top cylinder head with a centralized spark plug was used in all the experiments.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Control of Gearshifts On Twin Clutch Transmissions

In this paper a gearshift controller for twin clutch transmissions is developed. The controller incorporates the control of engine variables to achieve synchronization whilst the transfer of engine torque from clutch to clutch is managed by a clutch slip control. On top of this gearshift controller and as an extension to the basic control scheme a transmission output torque control is included as a means to directly influence shift character and add robustness to the control. The transmission output torque control also provides the foundation for an integrated torque management scheme of powertrain components. Simulation results for upshift and downshift are presented and discussed in the final chapter of this paper.
Technical Paper

Piston Assembly Friction Losses: Comparison of Measured and Predicted Data

The main objective of this research was to validate the friction prediction capability of Ricardo Software products PISDYN and RINGPAK by comparing predictions with measured piston assembly friction force. The measurements were made by the University of Leeds on a single cylinder Ricardo Hydra gasoline engine using an IMEP method developed by the University. This technique involves the use of advanced instrumentation to make accurate measurements of cylinder pressure, crankshaft angular velocity and connecting rod strain. These measured values are used to calculate the forces acting on the piston assembly including the friction force. PISDYN was used by Ricardo to calculate friction force at the interface between the piston skirt and cylinder liner. The model used includes the effects of secondary dynamics, partial lubrication and piston skirt profile. RINGPAK was used by Ricardo to calculate the friction force at each piston ring.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Engine Cycle Simulation Using the Leeds Turbulent Burning Velocity Correlations

A 3-zone thermodynamic cycle model has been developed which incorporates the Leeds correlations of turbulent burning velocity. The correlations encompass both the beneficial effects of turbulence in flame wrinkling and the detrimental effects of flame strain, which can lead to partial or total flame quench. Allowance has been made for the effects of “developing turbulence”, as the initially laminar flame kernel grows and is progressively influenced by larger scales of turbulence. Available experimental cylinder pressure and flame propagation data were used to check the plausibility of the simulation code and to establish values for the various constants employed to characterize the turbulence. The program was then used to explore the effects of engine speed, mixture strength, induction pressure and turbulence levels on the development of the combustion event.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active Suspension and Active Driveline to Improve Vehicle Dynamics

Many active control systems are developed as safety systems for passenger vehicles. These control systems usually focus on improving vehicle stability and safety while ignoring the effects on the vehicle driveability. In the motorsport environment, increased stability is desirable but not if the driveability of the vehicle is heavily compromised. In this work, active suspension and active drivelines are examined to improve vehicle dynamics and enhance driveability while maintaining stability. The active control systems are developed as separate driveability and stability controls and tested individually then integrated to create a multi-objective control system to improve both driveability and stability. The controllers are tested with standard vehicle manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Simulated Residual and NO Concentrations on Knock Onset for PRFs and Gasolines

Modern engine developments result in very different gas pressure-temperature histories to those in RON/MON determination tests and strain the usefulness of those knock scales and their applicability in SI engine knock and HCCI autoignition onset models. In practice, autoignition times are complex functions of fuel chemistry and burning velocity (which affects pressure-temperature history), residual gas concentration and content of species such as NO. As a result, autoignition expressions prove inadequate for engine conditions straying far from those under which they were derived. The currently reported study was designed to separate some of these effects. Experimental pressure crank-angle histories were derived for an engine operated in skip-fire mode to eliminate residuals. The unburned temperature history was derived for each cycle and was used with a number of autoignition/knock models.
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

The Role of Exhaust Pipe and Incylinder Deposits on Diesel Particulate Composition

Diesel engine exhaust pipe and incylinder deposits were analysed for the global fuel, lube oil, carbon and ash fractions for a range of diesel engines. A large SOF fraction, typically 30%, was found and this was dominated by lubricating oil. These deposits are shown to contain significant levels of PAH and hence provide a source of diesel PAH emissions and possible sites for incylinder pyrosynthesis of high molecular weight PAH. A Perkins 4-236 NA DI was used to investigate the role of exhaust pipe deposits on PAH emissions. It was shown that PAH compounds could be volatilised from the exhaust pipe. The difference in the exhaust inlet and outlet particulate composition for diesel and kerosene fuels was used to quantify the n-alkane and PAH emissions originating from the exhaust pipe deposits. Comparison with pure PAH free fuels showed that the exhaust outlet PAH composition was similar to that expected from the exhaust pipe deposits.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Handling Analysis Using Linearisation Around Non-Linear Operating Conditions

A non-linear example vehicle model including four degrees of freedom (yaw, sideslip, roll and steering), non-linear kinematics and the Magic Formula tyre model has been developed. With the assumption of small perturbations around any steady-state working condition, the linearised equations are derived. A novel approach is used for the linearisation of external forces and moments from the tyres. They are linearised in terms of the state variables rather than the slip angle, camber angle and vertical load which are themselves functions of the state variables. The results of this process are expressed in terms of stability derivatives. In order to use the method, the steady-state solution of the non-linear equations is first obtained for a particular value of lateral acceleration, then after the calculation of the stability derivatives, a linear analysis can be performed for the linear equations in terms of perturbed variables.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Performance of V-Ribbed Belt Drives (Experimental Investigation)

A non-contacting laser displacement meter has been used for dynamic measurements of the radial movement of a v-ribbed belt (type 3PK) around the arc of wrap running on a belt testing rig. Accurate and repeatable results are possible. Using this device, the belt radial movement and the beginning of rib bottom / groove tip contact around the arc of wrap have been determined experimentally for v-ribbed belts. Slip, torque loss, maximum torque capacity and efficiency have been measured during the tests.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Circumferential Waviness of the Journal on the Lubrication of Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

Current trends in automotive engine design are towards smaller, lighter components operating under higher specific loads. Consequently, engine bearings are expected to operate under highly stressed conditions, with minimum lubricant film thicknesses falling below 1μm. There is, however, insufficient understanding of acceptable tolerances on surface geometry of bearing shells and crankshaft pins. Measurement data suggest that some engine crankpins are machined with as many as 21 circumferential lobes. Some lobes have amplitudes in excess of 5 μm and are thought to be responsible for premature bearing damage. This study presents results from a theoretical analysis of dynamically loaded journal bearings with circumferential lobes on the journal. The Reynolds equation for a rigid journal bearing is solved for an incompressible, Newtonian, iso-viscous lubricant, with a flow conserving cavitation model accommodating oil film history.
Technical Paper

Integrated Active Steering and Variable Torque Distribution Control for Improving Vehicle Handling and Stability

This paper proposes an advanced control strategy to improve vehicle handling and directional stability by integrating either Active Front Steering (AFS) or Active Rear Steering (ARS) with Variable Torque Distribution (VTD) control. Both AFS and ARS serve as the steerability controller and are designed to achieve the improved yaw rate tracking in low to mid-range lateral acceleration using Sliding Mode Control (SMC); while VTD is used as the stability controller and employs differential driving torque between left and right wheels on the same axle to produce a relatively large stabilizing yaw moment when the vehicle states (sideslip angle and its angular velocity) exceed the reference stable region defined in the phase plane. Based on these stand-alone subsystems, an integrated control scheme which coordinates the control actions of both AFS/ARS and VTD is proposed. The functional difference between AFS and ARS when integrated with VTD is explained physically.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Driveline and Body Vibrations in Trucks

Torsional motion of a truck driveline system is coupled with other motions of its components. In this paper, a comprehensive model of the truck driveline and body for vibration analysis was developed. Coupling of the torsional vibration of the truck driveline system with the body fore-aft and vertical vibrations was investigated. A mathematical model, including the torsional vibration of the driveline system and the whole body vibrations of the truck, was constructed. The driveline system was modelled as a set of inertia discs linked together by massless springs and the tyre was represented as having massless circumferential band which is elastically connected to the carcass with the bands being subject to longitudinal forces at the road surface. System behaviour at steady and transient runs was developed.
Technical Paper

Real World Cold Start Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle

This study uses on-board measurement systems to analyze emissions from a diesel engine vehicle during the cold start period. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) spectrometer and a Horiba on-board measurement system (OBS-1300) were installed on a EURO3 emission-compliant 1.8 TDCi diesel van, in order to measure the emissions. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured, along with an analysis of the NO/NO₂ split. A VBOX GPS system was used to log coordinates and road speed for driving parameters and emission analysis. Thermal couples were installed along the exhaust system to measure the temperatures of exhaust gases during cold start. The real-time fuel consumption was measured. The study also looks at the influence of velocity on emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs) and NOx. The cold start period of an SI-engine-powered vehicle, was typically around 200 seconds in urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Rape Seed Oil B100 Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: The Influence of Intake Oxygen on Particle Size Distribution

Pure rape seed oil (RSO), as coded BO100 (BO: Bio-Oil) to distinguish from biodiesel was investigated for a range of intake oxygen levels from 21 to 24%. RSO can have deposit problems in both the fuel injector and piston crown and elevated intake oxygen levels potentially could control these by promoting their oxidation. Increased intake oxygen elevates the peak temperature and this promotes the oxidation of soot and volatile organic compounds. The effect of this on particle mass and on the particle size distribution was investigated using a 6-cylinder 6-liter Perkins Phaser Euro 2 DI diesel engine. The tests were conducted at 47 kW brake power output at 1500 rpm. The particle size distribution was determined from the engine-out exhaust sample using a Dekati microdilution system and nano-SMPS analyzer. The results showed that for air RSO had higher particle mass than diesel and that this mass decreased as the oxygen level was increased.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Performance of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Diesel

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a HGV Using Used Cooking Oil as a Fuel under Real World Driving Conditions

To maximize CO2 reduction, refined straight used cooking oils were used as a fuel in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) in this research. The fuel is called C2G Ultra Biofuel (C2G: Convert to Green Ltd) and is a fully renewable fuel made as a diesel replacement from processed used cooking oil, used directly in diesel engines specifically modified for this purpose. This is part of a large demonstration project involving ten 44-tonne trucks using C2G Ultra Biofuel as a fuel to partially replace standard diesel fuels. A dual fuel tank containing both diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel and an on-board fuel blending system-Bioltec system was installed on each vehicle, which is able to heat the C2G Ultra Biofuel and automatically determine the required blending ratio of diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel according to fuel temperature and engine load. The engine was started with diesel and then switched to C2G Ultra Biofuel under appropriate conditions.