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Technical Paper

The influence of damper properties on vehicle dynamic behavior

The detailed, dynamic properties of dampers are known to influence substantially some of the subtle - and yet nevertheless hugely important - refinement aspects or ride and handling. Despite this, most of the current work on damping characterization relies on steady-state properties and transient aspects are left largely to subjective in-car assessments by test drivers. The paper describes research work aimed at improving our understanding of the transient properties of dampers through mathematical modeling and then attempting to link these properties to detailed aspects of the vehicle ride and handling. Further experimental work is planned to follow later. From a moderately complex mathematical model of a damper, an attempt is made to identify (a) those transient characteristics which are important in influencing the vehicle responses perceived by test drivers, and (b) which design features of the damper control those characteristics.
Technical Paper

Spatial Structure in End-Gas Autoignition

Numerical investigations are reported on the location of sites at which autoignition first develops in the end-gas ahead of a spark-ignited flame in a combustion chamber following rapid compression of an alkane + air mixture to high pressures and temperatures. Attention is drawn to the part played by the reactions that give rise to a negative temperature coefficient of reaction rate in an inhomogeneous temperature field. A ‘reduced’ kinetic mechanism was employed to model the spontaneous oxidation of n-alkanes. Flame propagation was described in terms of the ‘eddy dissipation concept’ and coupled to the more detailed mechanism by means of a switching algorithm. The CFD calculations were performed by use of KIVA II.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Control of Gearshifts On Twin Clutch Transmissions

In this paper a gearshift controller for twin clutch transmissions is developed. The controller incorporates the control of engine variables to achieve synchronization whilst the transfer of engine torque from clutch to clutch is managed by a clutch slip control. On top of this gearshift controller and as an extension to the basic control scheme a transmission output torque control is included as a means to directly influence shift character and add robustness to the control. The transmission output torque control also provides the foundation for an integrated torque management scheme of powertrain components. Simulation results for upshift and downshift are presented and discussed in the final chapter of this paper.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Engine Cycle Simulation Using the Leeds Turbulent Burning Velocity Correlations

A 3-zone thermodynamic cycle model has been developed which incorporates the Leeds correlations of turbulent burning velocity. The correlations encompass both the beneficial effects of turbulence in flame wrinkling and the detrimental effects of flame strain, which can lead to partial or total flame quench. Allowance has been made for the effects of “developing turbulence”, as the initially laminar flame kernel grows and is progressively influenced by larger scales of turbulence. Available experimental cylinder pressure and flame propagation data were used to check the plausibility of the simulation code and to establish values for the various constants employed to characterize the turbulence. The program was then used to explore the effects of engine speed, mixture strength, induction pressure and turbulence levels on the development of the combustion event.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Characterisation of Cast Iron and Siliconised Carbon Composite Brake Rotors

This paper reports the results of a back-to-back comparison of the squeal and judder propensity of simple cast iron and siliconised carbon disk brake systems. A finite element simulation approach is used to predict the squeal propensity of the two systems based on the results of a complex eigenvalue analysis. These results which are validated by dynamometer noise tests carried out according to the SAE J2521 [1] standard procedure show that the siliconised carbon rotor is much less prone to squeal over the range of conditions considered. The combined experimental and numerical simulation approach is also applied to the problem of hot judder for the two rotors. The critical rotational speeds for hot spots to form are predicted to be an order of magnitude higher for the siliconised carbon rotor system. These results demonstrate the potential of the new carbon composite rotor material to reduce the occurrence of noise and vibration problems in automotive brakes.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active Suspension and Active Driveline to Improve Vehicle Dynamics

Many active control systems are developed as safety systems for passenger vehicles. These control systems usually focus on improving vehicle stability and safety while ignoring the effects on the vehicle driveability. In the motorsport environment, increased stability is desirable but not if the driveability of the vehicle is heavily compromised. In this work, active suspension and active drivelines are examined to improve vehicle dynamics and enhance driveability while maintaining stability. The active control systems are developed as separate driveability and stability controls and tested individually then integrated to create a multi-objective control system to improve both driveability and stability. The controllers are tested with standard vehicle manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Modes of End Gas Autoignition Leading to Knock in S. I. Engines

A 2-D simulation of fluid dynamic and chemistry interaction following end gas autoignition has demonstrated three distinct modes of reaction, dependent upon the temperature gradient about an exothermic centre. All three modes (deflagration, developing detonation and thermal explosion) can contribute to knock; the developing detonation case, associated with intermediate temperature gradient, has been identified as the more damaging. The simulation code (LUMAD) has been used in a systematic parametric study designed to separate the complex interacting events which can lead to mixed modes in real engines. A most significant finding related to the sequential autoignition of multiple exothermic centres.
Technical Paper

Improving Performance of a 6×6 Off-Road Vehicle Through Individual Wheel Control

This paper presents a method of control for a 6×6 series-configured Hybrid Electric Off-road Vehicle (HEOV). The vehicle concerned is an eight-tonne logistics support vehicle which utilizes Hub Mounted Electric Drives (HMED) at each of its six wheel stations. This set-up allows Individual Wheel Control (IWC) to be implemented to improve vehicle handling and mobility. Direct Yaw-moment Control (DYC) is a method of regulating individual wheel torque to control vehicle yaw motion, providing greater stability in cornering. When combined with both a Traction Control System (TCS) and an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) the tire/road interaction is fully controlled, leading to improved control over vehicle dynamics, whilst also improving vehicle safety.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active Suspension and Active Driveline to Ensure Stability While Improving Vehicle Dynamics

Most active control systems developed for passenger vehicles are developed as safety systems. These control systems usually focus on improving vehicle stability and safety while ignoring the effects on the vehicle driveability. While stability is the primary concern of these control systems the driveability of the vehicle is also an important consideration. An example of compromised driveability in a stability control system is brake based active yaw control. Brake based systems are very effective at stability control but can have a negative impact on the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle. The objective of the vehicle control systems developed for the future will be to preserve vehicle driveability while ensuring the stability of the vehicle. In this work, active suspension and active drivelines are developed as stability control systems that have a minimal impact on the driveability of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Evaluation of Off-Road Heavy Vehicle Handling

Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Handling Analysis Using Linearisation Around Non-Linear Operating Conditions

A non-linear example vehicle model including four degrees of freedom (yaw, sideslip, roll and steering), non-linear kinematics and the Magic Formula tyre model has been developed. With the assumption of small perturbations around any steady-state working condition, the linearised equations are derived. A novel approach is used for the linearisation of external forces and moments from the tyres. They are linearised in terms of the state variables rather than the slip angle, camber angle and vertical load which are themselves functions of the state variables. The results of this process are expressed in terms of stability derivatives. In order to use the method, the steady-state solution of the non-linear equations is first obtained for a particular value of lateral acceleration, then after the calculation of the stability derivatives, a linear analysis can be performed for the linear equations in terms of perturbed variables.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Performance of V-Ribbed Belt Drives (Experimental Investigation)

A non-contacting laser displacement meter has been used for dynamic measurements of the radial movement of a v-ribbed belt (type 3PK) around the arc of wrap running on a belt testing rig. Accurate and repeatable results are possible. Using this device, the belt radial movement and the beginning of rib bottom / groove tip contact around the arc of wrap have been determined experimentally for v-ribbed belts. Slip, torque loss, maximum torque capacity and efficiency have been measured during the tests.
Technical Paper

Integrated Active Steering and Variable Torque Distribution Control for Improving Vehicle Handling and Stability

This paper proposes an advanced control strategy to improve vehicle handling and directional stability by integrating either Active Front Steering (AFS) or Active Rear Steering (ARS) with Variable Torque Distribution (VTD) control. Both AFS and ARS serve as the steerability controller and are designed to achieve the improved yaw rate tracking in low to mid-range lateral acceleration using Sliding Mode Control (SMC); while VTD is used as the stability controller and employs differential driving torque between left and right wheels on the same axle to produce a relatively large stabilizing yaw moment when the vehicle states (sideslip angle and its angular velocity) exceed the reference stable region defined in the phase plane. Based on these stand-alone subsystems, an integrated control scheme which coordinates the control actions of both AFS/ARS and VTD is proposed. The functional difference between AFS and ARS when integrated with VTD is explained physically.
Technical Paper

Lap Time Simulation for Racing Car Design

A number of handling models of a small high performance formula type racing car have been produced. These have been used to optimise the performance of the vehicle whilst under going simple manoeuvres and around a complete race track. Recently the vehicle was fitted with a data acquisition system and objective data was taken of the vehicle's handling performance. The paper details an investigation into the accuracy of two (a simple and more sophisticated) vehicle handling models in predicting the actual vehicle's performance from the data collected by comparing measured and simulated results. The investigation studies the steady state and transient response of the vehicle up to the limit of the vehicle's handling performance. A description is also given of the use of the more sophisticated model in a virtual race track simulation where it is used as a development tool to tune the performance of future vehicles.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Driveline and Body Vibrations in Trucks

Torsional motion of a truck driveline system is coupled with other motions of its components. In this paper, a comprehensive model of the truck driveline and body for vibration analysis was developed. Coupling of the torsional vibration of the truck driveline system with the body fore-aft and vertical vibrations was investigated. A mathematical model, including the torsional vibration of the driveline system and the whole body vibrations of the truck, was constructed. The driveline system was modelled as a set of inertia discs linked together by massless springs and the tyre was represented as having massless circumferential band which is elastically connected to the carcass with the bands being subject to longitudinal forces at the road surface. System behaviour at steady and transient runs was developed.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic CFD Based Optimization of Police Car Using Bezier Curves

This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.