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Technical Paper

Automotive Nuclear-Heat Engines and Associated High-Temperature Materials

1957-01-01
570036
APPLICATION of nuclear energy for civilian automotive uses has possibilities, these authors say. Nuclear power for automotive applications, they feel, is technically feasible now where size and weight are not prime considerations; where size and weight are major parameters, discoveries of new materials for construction of nuclear-power reactors must be made. New materials are needed for reactor fuels, heat extractants, neutron reflectors, reactor construction materials, controls, and radiation shields which must have unique nuclear properties in addition to conventional engineering properties. This paper presents nuclear automotive propulsion devices in terms of technologies now available. The necessary radiation-shielding mass and weight requirements are presented for an ideal point-source nuclear-heat-power engine.
Technical Paper

RIDING COMFORT and CUSHIONS

1940-01-01
400171
THIS paper reports work begun in 1935 at the instigation of the Murray Corp. of America. Methods used in studying the relations between the automobile seat cushion and its function in transporting passengers with greater comfort and less fatigue are described. Constructed for this purpose was a piece of apparatus called the Universal Test Seat, whose dimensions were completely adjustable with arrangements to vary the distribution of the supporting pressure in any manner which seemed most comfortable to the passenger. The authors describe tests made by use of this apparatus, present summaries of some of the results recorded and conclude that, to give the passenger the maximum comfort and least fatigue, the following mechanical objectives should be attained by the cushion: 1. To support the passenger over a large area to get the smallest unit pressure on the flesh; 2.
Technical Paper

Infant and child anthropometry

1974-09-17
1974-13-0013
Although over 800 references to child and infant anthropometry are in the literature, most have limited validity and application to current populations. Functional measures required by industry and government for federal safety standards for design of dummies, child products, furniture, or protective devices such as restraint systems have either been incomplete, inadequate, or nonexistent. Some of the limitations influencing validity of existing data have been outlined for the potential user. As a start toward obtaining necessary functional anthropometric data, The University of Michigan is currently conducting a study sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission to obtain valid nationwide measurements on a representative U.S. population from birth to age 12 years. In this study some 41 measurements, including many functional measures, as well as seated and supine whole-body centers of gravity, are being taken utilizing a new automated anthropometric minicomputer system.
Technical Paper

Wear Rates of Gears By the Radioactive Method

1955-01-01
550271
A METHOD is described in this paper by which the rates of gear wear under different conditions can be determined by the use of the radioactive tracer technique. With this method one can measure the minutest amount of wear at loads and speeds much below critical destructive conditions. This method makes possible the continuous determination of rates of gear wear at all loads and speeds in actual full-scale units. In this investigation, the radioactive tracer technique has been used to determine the rates of gear wear when using a straight mineral oil and when using an extreme-pressure gear lubricant.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Dependence of the Minimum Spark Ignition Energy Upon the Rate of Energy Release

1966-02-01
660346
The conventional ignition system utilizing an induction coil produces a spark consisting of a capacitive or high energy rate component and an inductive or low energy rate component. Predominant among conflicting arguments reported in the literature is the argument that the high energy rate component is the more effective for ignition of combustible mixtures. An investigation was conducted to measure the effect of the rate of energy release upon minimum spark ignition energy with electrode spacings greater than the quench distances reported in the literature. Lean, quiescent, propane-air mixtures were studied in a constant volume bomb. Results indicate that the minimum ignition energy decreased as the instantaneous peak power or peak rate of energy release was increased.
Technical Paper

Airborne Laser Radar Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence

1966-02-01
660190
Conclusions based on the airborne experiments with laser radars are summarized in this paper. Details of the equipment and the flight procedures will be displayed during the oral presentation at the conference.
Technical Paper

Vibratory Loosening of Bolts

1966-02-01
660432
In this paper, the effects of fluctuating torque on loosening of a tightly seated bolt are investigated. Tests over a wide range of bolt stresses and loosening torques are reported and equipment developed for determination of such effects is described. It is shown that a definite functional relationship exists between the stress on a typical bolt, the oscillatory loosening torque that is applied, and the number of cycles before the bolt becomes loose. The effects of these relationships follow a clearly defined law, although they are, of course, influenced by a number of additional variables.
Technical Paper

Determining Machining Speeds from the Physical Properties of Metals

1964-01-01
640044
This paper develops an equation for calculating the machining speed for a specified tool-life by the use of three constants: a tool life-tool shape constant; a work material constant; and a size of cut constant. Representative values for these constants are tabulated, and curves showing the analytical relationship between v60 and feed as well as v60 and depth of cut are included. Experimental tests were conducted to verify the relationships, and the data are plotted on the calculated curves. The correlation between the calculated values of cutting speed with the experimental obtained values is good.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Motion Upon the Lean Limit and Combustion of Spark-Ignited Mixtures

1967-02-01
670467
The object of this research was to learn more about the effects of mixture motion upon ignition in spark ignited piston engines, and to determine how variations in mixture velocity alter the combustion process. To provide effective means for producing and measuring the mixture velocity, all tests were made in a constant volume bomb, using mixtures of propane and air. The effects of mixture motion on the lean spark ignition limit, rate of pressure rise, and burning time were determined for mixture ratios ranging from stoichiometric to the lean limit. The mixture pressures corresponded to those in Otto cycle engines at the time of spark occurrence. The results reveal that a mixture velocity of 50 fps, relative to the spark plug, requires an enrichment of 17% with respect to the stagnant lean limit. Increases in mixture velocity were found to greatly increase the rate of pressure rise during combustion. This effect was more pronounced for lean mixtures than for stoichiometric mixtures.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Tire Shear Forces

1970-02-01
700092
Based on a review of existing theoretical and empirical knowledge of the mechanics of pneumatic tires and tire/vehicle systems, a requirement is defined for experimental data relating the shear forces developed at the tire-road interface to the kinematic variables of influence. Test equipment to satisfy this requirement consists of two complementary pieces of apparatus: a laboratory facility which is a modified version of the B. F. Goodrich flat-bed tester, and a mobile device which consists of a three-component (Fx, Fy, Mz) strain-gage dynamometer mounted on a heavy duty highway tractor. The latter provides a capability for testing at speeds up to 70 mph, normal loads up to 2000 lb, tire sideslip angles up to 18 deg, and steady state or programmed variations in longitudinal tire slip from fully locked (100% slip) to 30% overdriven (-30% slip). Representative samples of tire mechanics data obtained using the new equipment are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cord Loads in Tires on Roadwheel and Highway

1970-02-01
700093
Strain gage instrumented transducers were used to measure the cord loads at a number of locations in several different automotive tires loaded against both flat and cylindrical road wheel surfaces. The two basic types of cord load fluctuation encountered in all automobile tires have been identified from these measurements, and the most severe location for cord load fluctuations has been closely bracketed. By these measurements, it has been possible to show that for each tire definite relations exist between the cord loads induced while running on a cylindrical drum and while running on a flat surface. The maximum cord load fluctuations in a tire are the same for the NBS roadwheel and flat surface when the tire is loaded against the roadwheel with a load of between 85 and 90% of that used on the flat surface.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Some Fuel and Engine Factors on Diesel Smoke

1969-02-01
690557
Possible mechanisms for smoke formation in the diesel engine are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the effects of some engine and fuel factors on carbon formation during the course of combustion, including cetane number, fuel volatility, air charge temperature, and after-injection. The tests were made with a single-cylinder, open chamber research engine, with three fuels, covering a wide range of inlet air temperatures and pressures. There is evidence that smoke intensity increased with increase in the cetaine number of the fuels with inlet air temperatures near atmospheric. Increase in the air charge temperature caused an increase in smoke intensity for volatile fuels and had an opposite effect on less volatile fuels for the open chamber engine used. The smoke intensity was found to increase dramatically with after-injection, with all other parameters kept constant. The concept that flame cooling is the main cause for smoke formation is examined.
Technical Paper

Mixture Motion - Its Effect on Pressure Rise in a Combustion Bomb: A New Look at Cyclic Variation

1968-02-01
680766
Cycle-to-cycle variation of pressure is a common problem in all spark-ignition engines. To examine the suspected influence of mixture-motion on this variation, a study was performed in a constant volume cylindrical bomb in which a jet of propane-air mixture was directed at the initial flame kernel. The rate of pressure rise of the jet-influenced combustion was compared to the rate for combustion in a quiescent mixture. The flame area, obtained using a spark schlieren photographic technique, and the calculated combustion rate were correlated with the pressure rate. The major results were: the rate of pressure rise increased approximately linearly with mixture jet velocity; and the width of the mixture-jet had an effect on the rate of pressure rise. A jet profile width slightly greather than the spark-gap produced the highest rate of pressure rise.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Sound Transmission Loss and Absorption Coefficient of Acoustical Materials

2011-05-17
2011-01-1625
Acoustical materials are widely used in automotive vehicles and other industrial applications. Two important parameters namely Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and absorption coefficient are commonly used to evaluate the acoustical performance of these materials. Other parameters, such as insertion loss, noise reduction, and loss factors are also used to judge their performance depending on the application of these materials. A systematic comparative study of STL and absorption coefficient was conducted on various porous acoustical materials. Several dozen materials including needled cotton fiber (shoddy) and foam materials with or without barrier/scrim were investigated. The results of STL and absorption coefficient are presented and compared. As expected, it was found that most of materials are either good in STL or good in absorption. However, some combinations can achieve a balance of performance in both categories.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0888
This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Response of a Structure Subjected to a Load from an Explosion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0781
Utilizing simulation technology is important for designing a structure with increased survivability to a load from an explosion. The pressure wave from the blast and the fragments hitting the structure must be simulated in such an analysis. Commercial software can be utilized through the development of appropriate interfaces for performing such computations. In this paper an approach is presented for combining commercially available Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers for performing blast event simulations. A capability has been developed for automatically creating the Eulerian finite element given the finite element model for the structure. The effect of moisture in the soil properties is considered during the generation of the soil - explosive - air model used by the Eulerian solver. Tracers are defined in the Eulerian model for all structural finite elements which are on the outer part of the structure and are subjected to the load from the blast.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry Study of In-Cylinder Flows with Improved Dynamic Range

2013-04-08
2013-01-0542
Engine in-cylinder velocity measurements are necessary for the study of cycle-to-cycle variations and the effect of turbulence and air-fuel mixing on combustion. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) can provide measurements through the entire cycle, for multiple contiguous cycles. However, the PIV dynamic range, using a single spatial resolution and image separation, is insufficient to resolve the wide range of in-cylinder velocity and spatial scales encountered throughout the engine cycle. This paper discusses in-cylinder PIV data acquired with cycle resolution from the central tumble plane of a motored spark ignition optical engine using PIV image frame time separations (dts) that were dynamically varied as a function of crank angle. Also, two cameras with different magnifications were used to simultaneously acquire PIV images at high and low spatial resolution.
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