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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Sound Transmission Loss and Absorption Coefficient of Acoustical Materials

2011-05-17
2011-01-1625
Acoustical materials are widely used in automotive vehicles and other industrial applications. Two important parameters namely Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and absorption coefficient are commonly used to evaluate the acoustical performance of these materials. Other parameters, such as insertion loss, noise reduction, and loss factors are also used to judge their performance depending on the application of these materials. A systematic comparative study of STL and absorption coefficient was conducted on various porous acoustical materials. Several dozen materials including needled cotton fiber (shoddy) and foam materials with or without barrier/scrim were investigated. The results of STL and absorption coefficient are presented and compared. As expected, it was found that most of materials are either good in STL or good in absorption. However, some combinations can achieve a balance of performance in both categories.
Technical Paper

Load Limits with Fuel Effects of a Premixed Diesel Combustion Mode

2009-06-15
2009-01-1972
Premixed diesel combustion is intended to supplant conventional combustion in the light to mid load range. This paper demonstrates the operating load limits, limiting criteria, and load-based emissions behavior of a direct-injection, diesel-fueled, premixed combustion mode across a range of test fuels. Testing was conducted on a modern single-cylinder engine fueled with a range of ultra-low sulfur fuels with cetane number ranging from 42 to 53. Operating limits were defined on the basis of emissions, noise, and combustion stability. The emissions behavior and operating limits of the tested premixed combustion mode are independent of fuel cetane number. Combustion stability, along with CO and HC emissions levels, dictate the light load limit. The high load limit is solely dictated by equivalence ratio: high PM, CO, and HC emissions result as overall equivalence ratio approaches stoichiometric.
Journal Article

Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

2011-05-17
2011-01-1734
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0888
This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Methods in Vehicle Mass and Road Grade Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0111
Dynamic vehicle loads play critical roles for automotive controls including battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty predictions, and various active safety systems. Accurate real-time estimation of vehicle loads such as those due to vehicle mass and road grade can thus improve safety, efficiency, and performance. While several estimation methods have been proposed in literature, none have seen widespread adoption in current vehicle technologies despite their potential to significantly improve automotive controls. To understand and bridge the gap between research development and wider adoption of real-time load estimation, this paper assesses the accuracy and performance of four estimation methods that predict vehicle mass and/or road grade.
Journal Article

Modeling of Failure Modes of Gas Metal Arc Welds in Notched Lap-Shear Specimens of HSLA Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0784
The failure modes of gas metal arc welds in notched lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are investigated. Notched lap-shear specimens of gas metal arc welds were first made. Quasi-static test results of the notched lap-shear specimens showed two failure locations for the welds. The specimens cut from coupons with shorter weld lengths failed near the weld root whereas the specimens cut from coupons with longer weld lengths failed near the weld toe. Micro-hardness tests were conducted in order to provide an assessment of the mechanical properties of the base metal, the heat affected zone, and the weld metal. In order to understand the failure modes of these welds, finite element models were developed with the geometric characteristics of the weld metals and heat affected zones designed to match those of the micrographs of the cross sections for the long and short welds.
Technical Paper

The Quantification of Liver Anatomical Changes and Assessment of Occupant Liver Injury Patterns

2013-11-11
2013-22-0011
Liver injuries can be significant in vehicle crashes. In this study, the liver anatomy was quantified in both adult and pediatric populations as a function of gender and age. Five anatomical liver measurements were determined using CT scans of 260 normal livers. These measurements include the area and volume, and the length, width, and girth of the liver (IRB HUM00041441). To characterize geometrical shape, an inscribed sphere and circumscribed ellipsoid were fitted on the measurements. In the pediatric population the liver area and volume continuously increased with age. When normalized by patient weight, volume measurements show a decrease in volume with age, suggesting that the liver occupies a smaller proportion of the body with age. In the adult population, liver measurements varied with gender. The superior and inferior locations of the liver were also recorded with respect to the spine. The lower portion was at the L3 in small children and at L2 as children approached puberty.
Journal Article

A Copula-Based Approach for Model Bias Characterization

2014-04-01
2014-01-0735
Available methodologies for model bias identification are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models and so on. Accuracy and efficiency of these methodologies may degrade for characterizing the model bias when more system inputs are considered in the prediction model due to the curse of dimensionality for regression-based approaches. This paper proposes a copula-based approach for model bias identification without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea is to build general statistical relationships between the model bias and the model prediction including all system inputs using copulas so that possible model bias distributions can be effectively identified at any new design configurations of the system. Two engineering case studies whose dimensionalities range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the copula-based approach.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
Abstract The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement During Cold Start Using Recycled Exhaust Heat and Electrical Energy for Engine Oil and ATF Warm-Up

2014-04-01
2014-01-0674
Abstract A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Development of HFE Space Claims for Combat Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0488
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Investigation of In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine: Effect of Intake Temperature and Simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3685
The formation of NO was investigated in a spray-guided spark-ignition direct-injection gasoline engine. The influence of variations in intake air temperature and simulated exhaust gas recirculation was examined in an optical single-cylinder engine, fueled with iso-octane. Cycle-resolved simultaneous measurements of OH-chemiluminescence, NO laser induced fluorescence, and fast NO exhaust gas sampling allowed a detailed view of the formation process of NO in this engine. Overall, it was found that cycle-resolved information is needed to explain the differences found between operating conditions, since the initial high stratification of fuel leads to large spatial gradients in the NO concentration. Averaged in-cylinder NO distributions do not adequately reflect the formation process rather than show a smoothed distribution that may even be counter-intuitive based on averaged chemiluminescence data.
Technical Paper

Analytic Solution of Mode I Stress Intensity Factor for Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2006-04-03
2006-01-0535
The analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens is investigated based on the classical Kirchhoff plate theory for linear elastic materials. Approximate closed-form solutions for a finite square plate containing a rigid inclusion under counter bending conditions are first derived. Based on the J integral, the closed-form structural stress solution is used to develop the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens of finite size. Finally, the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor based on the stress solution for a finite square plate with an inclusion is compared with the results of the three-dimensional finite element computations for lap-shear specimens with various ratios of the specimen half width to the nugget radius.
Technical Paper

Structural and Material Changes in the Aging Thorax and Their Role in Crash Protection for Older Occupants

2005-11-09
2005-22-0011
The human body undergoes a variety of changes as it ages through adulthood. These include both morphological (structural) changes (e.g., increased thoracic kyphosis) and material changes (e.g., osteoporosis). The purpose of this study is to evaluate structural changes that occur in the aging bony thorax and to assess the importance of these changes relative to the well-established material changes. The study involved two primary components. First, full-thorax computed tomography (CT) scans of 161 patients, age 18 to 89 years, were analyzed to quantify the angle of the ribs in the sagittal plane. A significant association between the angle of the ribs and age was identified, with the ribs becoming more perpendicular to the spine as age increased (0.08 degrees/year, p=0.012). Next, a finite element model of the thorax was used to evaluate the importance of this rib angle change relative to other factors associated with aging.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
Technical Paper

The Development of Throttled and Unthrottled PCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0202
Present-day implementations of premixed compression ignition low temperature (PCI) combustion in diesel engines use higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) than conventional diesel combustion. Two common devices that can be used to achieve high levels of EGR are an intake throttle and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Because the two techniques affect the engine air system in different ways, local combustion conditions differ between the two in spite of, in some cases, having similar burn patterns in the form of heat release. The following study has developed from this and other observations; observations which necessitate a deeper understanding of emissions formation within the PCI combustion regime. This paper explains, through the use of fundamental phenomenological observations, differences in ignition delay and emission indices of particulate matter (EI-PM) and nitric oxides (EI-NOx) from PCI combustion attained via the two different techniques to flow EGR.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Light-Off Behavior and Species-Resolved Conversion Efficiencies During In-Situ Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Degreening

2006-04-03
2006-01-0209
Degreening is crucial in obtaining a stable catalyst prior to assessing its performance characteristics. This paper characterizes the light-off behavior and conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the degreening process. A platinum DOC is degreened for 16 hours in the presence of actual diesel engine exhaust at 650°C and 10% water (H2O) concentration. The DOC's activity for carbon monoxide (CO) and for total hydrocarbons (THC) conversion is checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 hours of degreening. Pre-and post-catalyst hydrocarbon species are analyzed via gas chromatography at 0, 4, 8, and 16 hours of degreening. It is found that both light-off temperature and species-resolved conversion efficiencies change rapidly during the first 8 hours of degreening and then stabilize to a large degree. T50, the temperature where the catalyst is 50% active towards a particular species, increases by 14°C for CO and by 11°C for THC through the degreening process.
Technical Paper

A LNT+SCR System for Treating the NOx Emissions from a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0210
Abstract An aftertreatment system involving a LNT followed by a SCR catalyst is proposed for treating the NOx emissions from a diesel engine. NH3 (or urea) is injected between the LNT and the SCR. The SCR is used exclusively below 400°C due to its high NOx activity at low temperatures and due to its ability to store and release NH3 below 400°C, which helps to minimize NH3 and NOx slip. Above 400°C, where the NH3 storage capacity of the SCR falls to low levels, the LNT is used to store the NOx. A potassium-based LNT is utilized due to its high temperature NOx storage capability. Periodically, hydrocarbons are oxidized on the LNT under net lean conditions to promote the thermal release of the NOx. NH3 is injected simultaneously to reduce the released NOx over the SCR. The majority of the hydrocarbons are oxidized on the front portion of the LNT, resulting in the rapid release of stored NOx from that portion of the LNT.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Quantifying Residual Stress Due to Heat Treatment in Metals

2006-04-03
2006-01-0319
Quantification of residual stresses is an important engineering problem impacting manufacturabilty and durability of metallic components. An area of particular concern is residual stresses that can develop during heat treatment of metallic components. Many heat treatments, especially in heat treatable cast aluminum alloys, involve a water-quenching step immediately after a solution-treatment cycle. This rapid water quench has the potential to induce high residual stresses in regions of the castings that experience large thermal gradients. These stresses may be partially relaxed during the aging portion of the heat treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a test sample and quench technique to quantify the stresses created by steep thermal gradients during rapid quenching of cast aluminum. The development and relaxation of residual stresses during the aging cycle was studied experimentally with the use of strain gauges.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-1648
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
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