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Technical Paper

Advanced Anthropomorphic Test Device Concept Definition

This paper summarizes the results of Phase 1, Concept Definition, of the AATD program and identifies the reasons such a new test device is needed. The following areas are addressed: 1) injury priority from accident data; 2) current dummy design, use, and potential improvements; and 3) technical characteristics and design concepts for a new AATD, its data processing, and its certification systems.
Technical Paper

Minimizing Read-Through When Creating a Mechanical Score in a Polymer Skin

When weakening a skin/foam bilaminate by mechanically scoring the polymer skin on its back surface, where it is bonded to the foam, the weakness of the bilaminate is determined by the depth of the score groove. The deeper the groove, the weaker the bilaminate. But also, the deeper the groove, the greater the tendency for read-through. Read-through is seeing on the front surface the location of this groove that was created on the back surface. Scored skins, after mounting flat on a glass plate, were viewed with an optical interferometer. It was found that the topographical feature that constituted read-through was a valley. A Silly Putty model was used to better understand the strains induced by mechanical scoring and this understanding was used to identify factors affecting read-through. Blade thickness and the ultimate elongation of the skin material were identified as factors. This work is applicable to certain types of passenger-side seamless airbag systems, for example.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Vehicle Occupant Body Dimensions and Postures Using a Statistical Body Shape Model

Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Properties of the Human Neck in Lateral Flexion

Properties of the human neck which may influence a person's susceptibility to “whiplash” injury during lateral impact have been studied in 96 normal subjects. Subjects were chosen on the basis of age, sex, and stature and data were grouped into six primary categories based on sex (F, M) and age (18-24, 35-44, 62-74). The data include: measures of head, neck and body anthropometry in standing and simulated automotive seating positions, three-dimensional range of motion of the head and neck, head/neck response to low-level acceleration, and both stretch reflex time and voluntary isometric muscle force in the lateral direction. Reflex times are found to vary from about 30 to 70 ms with young and middle aged persons having faster times than older persons, and females having faster times than males. Muscle strength decreases with age and males are, on the average, stronger than females.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Structures for Crashworthiness via Equivalent Mechanism Approximations

A new method for crashworthiness optimization of vehicle structures is presented, where an early design exploration is done by the optimization of an equivalent mechanism approximating a vehicle structure. An equivalent mechanism (EM) is a network of rigid bodies connected by prismatic and revolute joints with special nonlinear springs. These springs are designed to mimic the force-displacement characteristics of thin-walled beams often found in the vehicle body structures. A computer software is implemented that allows the designer to quickly construct an equivalent mechanism model of a structure using a graphical user interface (GUI) to optimize the model for given objectives prior to final tuning using finite element (FE) models. A case study of a vehicle front substructure consisting of mid and lower rails is presented, which demonstrates that the new approach can obtain a better design with less computational resources than the direct optimization of a FE model.
Technical Paper

Predicting Foot Positions for Manual Materials Handling Tasks

For many industrial tasks (push, pull, lift, carry, etc.), restrictions on grip locations and visibility constrain the hand and head positions and help to define feasible postures. In contrast, foot locations are often minimally constrained and an ergonomics analyst can choose several different stances in selecting a posture to analyze. Also, because stance can be a critical determinant of a biomechanical assessment of the work posture, the lack of a valid method for placing the feet of a manikin with respect to the task compromises the accuracy of the analysis. To address this issue, foot locations and orientations were captured in a laboratory study of sagittal plane and asymmetric manual load transfers. A pilot study with four volunteers of varying anthropometry approached a load located on one of three shelves and transferred the load to one of six shelves.
Technical Paper

Worst Case Scenarios Generation and Its Application on Driving

The current test methods are insufficient to evaluate and ensure the safety and reliability of vehicle system for all possible dynamic situations including the worst cases such as rollover, spin-out and so on. Although the known NHTSA J-turn and Fish-hook steering maneuvers are applied for the vehicle performance assessment, they are not enough to predict other possible worst case scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to search for the various worst cases including the existing severe steering maneuvers. This paper includes the procedure to search for other useful worst case based upon the existing worst case scenarios in terms of rollover and its application in simulation basis. The human steering angle is selected as a design variable and optimized to maximize the index function to be expressed in terms of vehicle roll angle. The obtained scenarios were enough to generate the worse cases than NHTSA ones.
Technical Paper

Software Integration for Simulation-Based Analysis and Robust Design Automation of HMMWV Rollover Behavior

A multi-body dynamics model of the U.S. Army3s High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) has been created using commercial software (ADAMS) to simulate and analyze the vehicle3s rollover behavior. However, manual operation of such simulation and analysis for design purposes is prohibitively expensive and time consuming, limiting the engineers3 ability to utilize the model fully and extract from it useful design information in a timely, cost-effective manner. To address this challenge, a commercial system integration and optimization software (OPTIMUS) is utilized in order to automate the simulation processes and to enable the more complex uncertainty-based analysis of the HMMWV rollover behavior under a variety of external conditions. Challenges involved in integrating the software are highlighted and remedies are discussed. Rollover analysis results from using the integrated model and automated simulation are also presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passenger Car Side Impacts - Crash Location, Injuries, AIS and Contacts

NASS 80-88 passenger side impacts data were analyzed. Location of primary car damage using the CDC classification, the AIS for injury severity studies, and the interior contacts of the various body areas. Drivers alone, or with passengers were studied separately in both left and right side crashes. Direct impacts to the passenger compartment only are less frequent than to other CDC side zones. Driver interior contacts vary by body region but also by side impacted in the crash. The presence of an unrestrained front passenger appears to enhance driver injury level in left side crashes but the presence of a passenger, in right side crashes appears to moderate driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Automotive Nuclear-Heat Engines and Associated High-Temperature Materials

APPLICATION of nuclear energy for civilian automotive uses has possibilities, these authors say. Nuclear power for automotive applications, they feel, is technically feasible now where size and weight are not prime considerations; where size and weight are major parameters, discoveries of new materials for construction of nuclear-power reactors must be made. New materials are needed for reactor fuels, heat extractants, neutron reflectors, reactor construction materials, controls, and radiation shields which must have unique nuclear properties in addition to conventional engineering properties. This paper presents nuclear automotive propulsion devices in terms of technologies now available. The necessary radiation-shielding mass and weight requirements are presented for an ideal point-source nuclear-heat-power engine.
Technical Paper

Integration of Electromagnetic and Optical Motion Tracking Devices for Capturing Human Motion Data Woojin Park

For human motion studies, which are to be used for either dynamic biomechanical analyses or development of human motion simulation models, it is important to establish an empirical motion database derived from efficient measurement and well-standardized data processing methodologies. This paper describes the motion recording and data processing system developed for modeling seated reach motions at the University of Michigan's HUMOSIM Laboratory. Both electromagnetic (Flock of Birds) and optical (Qualysis) motion capture systems are being used simultaneously to record the motion data. Using both types of devices provides a robust means to record human motion, but each has different limitations and advantages. The amount of kinematic information (DOFs), external sources of noise, shadowing, off-line marker identification/tracking time, and setup cost are key differences.
Technical Paper

Modeling Variability in Reaching Motions

Motion prediction models may give the average reach for an individual of specified characteristics. The actual reach will vary from this reach in a manner that may depend on both systematic and random factors. We describe a modeling approach that incorporates the variability within the reaches of a given subject and that between subjects. This information is useful to designers in investigating phenomena that may not occur during the average reach but may occur during variants such as collision with an obstacle or injury due to over-exertion.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Rattle: Understanding Root Sources and Testing Methods

This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Detection of Ice on Aircraft Tail Surfaces

A method is presented here that detects aircraft tail surface icing that might normally be unobserved by the flight crew. Such icing can be detected through the action of highly computationally efficient signal processing of existing sensor signals using a so-called failure detection filter (FDF). The FDF creates a unique output signature permitting relatively early detection of tail surface icing. The FDF incorporates a stable state estimator from which the icing signature is created. This estimator is robust to analytical modeling errors or uncertainties, and to process noise (e.g. turbulence). Excellent performance of the method is demonstrated via simulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Testing and Mathematical Modeling of the Interconnected Hydragas Suspension System

The Moulton Hydragas suspension system improves small car ride quality by interconnecting the front and rear wheel on each side of the vehicle via a hydraulic fluid pipe between the front and rear dampers. A Hydragas system from a Rover Group MGF sports car was statically and dynamically tested to generate stiffness and damping coefficient matrices. The goal was to develop the simplest possible model of the system for use in ride quality studies. A linear model showed reasonable accuracy over restricted frequency ranges. A second model used bilinear spring and damping constants, and was more accurate for predicting force at both the front and rear units for frequencies from 1 to 8 Hz. The Hydragas system static stiffness parameters, when used in the model, caused peak force underprediction in the jounce direction. The bilinear model required increased jounce stiffness to account for hysteresis in the rubber elements of the system, and dynamic fluid flow phenomena.
Technical Paper

An Experiment-Based Model of Fabric Heat Transfer and Its Inclusion in Air Bag Deployment Simulations

A numerical model is presented that is capable of isolating and quantifying the heat flux from the gas within the bag to the air bag fabric due to internal surface convection during the inflator discharge period of an air bag deployment. The model is also capable of predicting the volume averaged fabric temperatures during the air bag deployment period. Implementation of the model into an air bag deployment code, namely Inflator Simulation Program (ISP), is presented along with the simulation results for typical inflators. The predicted effect of the heat loss from the bag gas to the fabric on the internal bag gas temperature and pressure and the resulting bulk fabric temperature as a function of fabric parameters and the inflator exit gas properties are presented for both permeable and impermeable air bag fabrics.
Technical Paper

Energy and Entropy in Airbag Deployment: The Effect on an Out-Of-Position Occupant

Deployment of an airbag or charging of a tank by an inflator-canister system is a highly dynamic process. Quantification of energy storage, energy flux, work done, flow rates, thermodynamic properties, and energy conservation are essential to describe the deployment process. The concepts of available work and entropy production are presented as useful parameters when evaluating airbag aggressivity from tank test results for different types of inflators. This paper presents a computational methodology to simulate a pyro- and a hybrid-inflator-canister-airbag system to predict the force pattern that could occur on an out-of-position occupant when the airbag deploys. Comparisons with experimental data have been made in all cases where data were available. These include driver-, passenger-, and side-airbag designs.