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Technical Paper

Investigation and Validation of Transmission Loss for Vehicle Components with a Large Aperture

Determination of the sound transmission loss (STL) of a vehicle component that has a large aperture, such as an air exhauster or an air extraction opening, always presents a challenge to an acoustics engineer. The complexity of the aperture's physical conditions cannot be easily solved with conventional, analytical or numerical methods. A systematic study of investigating the transmission loss characteristics of the large aperture is presented in this paper. Both conventional potential noise reduction predictions of large apertures and SEA simulations were performed. Transmission losses with different acoustic treatments were measured and predicted when using AutoSEA2. Finally, correlation between measured results and predications were developed. The ultimate goal of this study is to reduce the costly transmission loss measurements with correlated analytical estimations
Technical Paper

Characteristics of High-Pressure Spray and Exhaust Emissions in a Single- Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

Regulations on exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines have generated interest in high-pressure fuel injection systems. It has been recognized that high-pressure injection systems produce fuel sprays that may be more conductive to reducing exhaust emissions in direct-injection diesel engines. However, for such a system to be effective it must be matched carefully with the engine design and its operating parameters. A common-rail type of fuel injection system was investigated in the present study. The injection system utilizes an intensifier to generate injection pressures as high as 160 MPa. The fuel spray characteristics were evaluated on a test bench in a chamber containing pressurized nitrogen gas. The injection system was then incorporated in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection system parameters were adjusted to match engine specifications and its operating parameters.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Technical Paper

Issues on Load Availability and Reliability in Vehicular Multiplexed and Non-Multiplexed Wiring Harness Systems

In military vehicles reliability can sometimes be a more important issue than cost. With that in perspective, this paper discusses the load availability and reliability issues in automotive multiplexed wiring harness systems, which are potentially useful in the military, and compares the same with a regular non-multiplexed system. For that purpose, a figure of merit or metric is introduced, and the load availability is described in terms of this metric, which depends on the architecture chosen.
Technical Paper

Dynamics of Torque Meter for Car Test Stands

Always for means of a measurement of the torque of car units are made great requirements. In the paper presented the opportunities of more exact measurement of the torque using the microprocessor meter and the dynamics of an offered meter are analyzed. The use of the given torque meter will allow improving technical, economic, operational and other properties of car stands.
Technical Paper

An Elastoplastic Damage Coupled Analysis for Crashworthiness of Aluminum Materials

This paper presents a comprehensive damage model capable of predicting crash behavior of aluminum structures under varying applied loading conditions. The damage model has been implemented in a general purpose explicit nonlinear finite element code and crash analysis has been carried out for aluminum tubes. The response obtained from the finite element analysis shows a close agreement with the experimental data. The finite element program containing the proposed generalized damage model can be used to analyze aluminum structures subjected to complex service loading conditions and identify associated failure modes to assess crashworthiness.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Forming Limit Diagram with Damage Analysis

Based on the theory of damage mechanics, an orthotropic damage model for the prediction of forming limit diagram (FLD) is developed. The conventional method of FLD used to predict localized necking adopts two fundamentally different approaches. Under biaxial loading, the Hill's plasticity method is often chosen when α (= ε2/ε1) < 0. On the other hand, the M-K method is adopted for the prediction of localized necking when α > 0 or the biaxial stretching of sheet metal is pronounced. The M-K method however suffers from the arbitrary selection of the imperfection size, thus resulting in inconsistent predictions. The orthotropic damage model developed for predicting the FLD is based on the anisotropic damage model recently proposed by Chow et al (1993). The model is extended to take into account, during the sheet forming process, orthotropic plasticity and damage. The orthotropic FLD model consists of the constitutive equations of elasticity and plasticity coupled with damage.
Technical Paper

A Fitting Algorithm for Determination of Minimum Zone Form Tolerances

In this paper, a new algorithm, named Nonlinear Optimization Method (NOM) has been mathematically and computationally developed for several geometric elements. The initial condition of the NOM is obtained by LSM, then the minimum zone is optimized in accordance with tolerancing principles in ANSI Y14.5.1M. The results are verified to be the Minimum Zone Evaluation (MZE) for the inspected geometric features. The algorithm, together with its computational realization programs, are proved to be considerably reliable and robust for practical applications.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Scavenging Process in a Two-Stroke Engine

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas exchange process in a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine were used to study the scavenging characteristics of the engine over the whole operating range and to investigate the effects of various design changes. The simulations used time-dependent velocity and pressure boundary conditions in the transfer and exhaust ports, respectively, which were obtained from a one-dimensional gas exchange code. The bulk flow characteristics, scavenging and trapping efficiencies, computed from these simulations compared well with experimental data. Investigation of the highest load and speed case showed that moderate port angle variations only weakly influenced the scavenging efficiency and velocity field. On the other hand, modifying the exhaust pressure to simulate single cylinder operation had a more significant effect on the scavenging and showed a possible way to control the gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Experimental Validation of Path-Dependent Forming Limit Diagrams of VDIF Steel

Strains in most stamped parts are produced under non-proportional loading. Limit strains induced during forming are, therefore, path dependent. Experimental Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) are usually determined under proportional loading and are not applicable to most forming operations. Experimental results have shown that path dependent FLDs are different from those determined under proportional loading. A number of analytical methods have been used to predict FLDs under proportional loading. The authors have recently introduced a new method for predicting FLDs based on the theory of damage mechanics. The damage model was used successfully to predict proportional FLDs for VDIF steel and Al6111-T4. In this paper, the anisotropic damage model was used to predict non-proportional FLDs for VDIF steel. Experiments were conducted to validate model predictions by applying pre-stretch in plane strain followed by uniaxial and balanced biaxial tension.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Natural Gas Fueled S.I.Engine and Exhaust Emissions

An experimental study was undertaken to study exhaust emission from a lean-burn natural gas spark ignition engine. The possibility that such an engine may help to reduce exhaust emissions substantially by taking advantage of natural gas fuel properties, such as its antiknock properties and extended lean flammability limit compared to gasoline, was the main motivation behind the investigation. A four cylinder, automotive type spark ignition engine was used in the investigation. The engine was converted to operate on natural gas by replacing its fuel system with a gaseous carburetion system. A 3-way metal metrix catalytic converter was used in the engine exhaust system to reduce emission levels. The engine operated satisfactorily at an equivalence ratio as lean as 0.6, at all speeds and loads. As a result NOx emissions were significantly reduced. However, hydrocarbon emissions were high, particularly at very lean conditions and light loads.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Computer System for the Control of Refrigerant Flow

This paper presents a real-time computer system for the control of refrigerant flow in an automotive air conditioning system. This is an experimental system used to investigate the potential advantages of electronic flow control over conventional flow control (using an orifice tube or thermal expansion valve). Two features of this system are presented. First, the system organization is described. Second, the control and interface software are presented. The emphasis is on the software. The system is organized as a closed loop control system. The inputs to the controller are measurements of the refrigerant system. In particular, thermocouples are used to measure the refrigerant temperature before and after the evaporator. The analog thermocouple signals are converted to digital form by an off-the-shelf, portable, data acquisition system (DAQ). Via a parallel port link, these digital measurements are transfered to a laptop computer.
Technical Paper

Strategic Investment Analysis for Manufacturing Waste Management

This paper elucidates the major issues complicating strategic investment decisions in manufacturing waste systems. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an innovative approach in decision theory, is applied to these decisions in a manufacturing plant at General Motors Corporation. When compared with capital budgeting models, AHP is found to offer a superior approach due to its comprehensive mechanism, a feature urgently needed to handle the increasing legal, economic and technological complexities of manufacturing wastes.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Their Control in Natural Gas Fueled Engines

An experimental study was undertaken to investigate emissions of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane hydrocarbons emitted by natural gas fueled engines and the extent of their conversion in catalysts. Two engines were used in the study: a four cylinder, 1.6 liter, spark ignition engine and a modified version of the same engine with only one of the cylinders operating at 0.4 liter capacity. Two-way and three-way catalysts were used to treat exhaust gases leaving the engine. Natural gas was supplied through gas carburetors operated at regulated pressures and supplying air-fuel ratios in the desired range. The results of the investigation showed that oxides of nitrogen could not be reduced in a three-way catalyst to the levels found in gasoline fueled engines when the operating air-fuel ratio was stoichiometric.
Technical Paper

Paint Bake Influence on AA7075 and AA7085

The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

Synchronous Motor with Silicon Steel Salient Poles Rotor and All Coils Placed on the Stator

In this paper, we consider a new design of synchronous motor with salient poles rotor and all coils placed on the stator. This design, uses a laminated silicon steel rotor, which is not so expensive as a rotor with super strong permanent magnets. This design of machine eliminates copper rings on the rotor and brushes which is used in regular synchronous motors, and eliminates disadvantages involved with these arrangements. In an earlier publication, authors considered the opportunity realization of synchronous mode operation in the machine with salient pole rotor and DC stator excitation. Now, we consider the new synchronous mode operation with individual DC excitation of each the alternative current (AC) windings for realization the first, second and third phase synchronous machines. In theoretical basics of analyses and design of synchronous motors we pay more attention to the single-phase motor because it is the basis for design polyphase synchronous machines.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Driver Eye Glance Behavior, Navigational Errors, and Subjective Assessments While Using In-Vehicle Navigational Systems With and Without Landmark Enhancements

This study investigated the effects of three navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye-glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove an unfamiliar 3-segment route in downtown Detroit. HMIs were 2D or 3D (level-of-detail) electronic map display + standard voice prompts, or 3D map-display augmented by photorealistic images + landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Participants drove the same three route segments in order but were assigned a different HMI condition/segment in a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicate that drivers’ visual attention using the advanced navigation systems HMIs were within US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits. More turns missed in the first route segment, regardless of HMI, were attributable to greater route complexity and a late-onset voice prompt. Participant’s ratings of HMIs were influenced by the context in which that HMI was used.
Technical Paper

Secure and Privacy-Preserving Data Collection Mechanisms for Connected Vehicles

Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.