Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Touch Feel and Appearance Characteristics of Automotive Door Armrest Materials

2007-04-16
2007-01-1217
This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Driver Behavior and Performance in Two Driving Simulators

2008-04-14
2008-01-0562
This paper presents results of a study conducted to compare driving behavior and performance of drivers in two different fixed-base driving simulators (namely, FAAC and STI) while performing a same set of distracting tasks under geometrically similar freeway and traffic conditions. The FAAC simulator had a wider three-screen road view with steering feedback as compared to the STI simulator which had a single screen and narrower road view and had no steering feedback. Twenty four subjects (12 younger and 12 mature) drove each simulator and were asked to perform a set of nine different tasks involving different distracting elements such as, using a cell phone, operating the car radio, retrieving and selecting a map from map pocket in the driver's door, collecting coins to pay toll, etc.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Optimization of Seat and Suspension Parameters for Occupant Ride Comfort in a Passenger Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1404
This study presents a methodology for comparative analysis of seat and suspension parameters on a system level to achieve minimum occupant head displacement and acceleration, thereby improving occupant ride comfort. A lumped-parameter full-vehicle ride model with seat structures, seat cushions and five occupants has been used. Two different vehicle masses are considered. A low amplitude pulse signal is provided as the road disturbance input. The peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head due to the road disturbance are determined and used as measures of ride comfort. Using a design of experiments approach, the most critical seat cushion, seat structure and suspension parameters and their interactions affecting the occupant head displacement and acceleration are determined. An optimum combination of parameters to achieve minimum peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head is identified using a response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Driver Eye Glance Behavior, Navigational Errors, and Subjective Assessments While Using In-Vehicle Navigational Systems With and Without Landmark Enhancements

2017-03-28
2017-01-1375
This study investigated the effects of three navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye-glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove an unfamiliar 3-segment route in downtown Detroit. HMIs were 2D or 3D (level-of-detail) electronic map display + standard voice prompts, or 3D map-display augmented by photorealistic images + landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Participants drove the same three route segments in order but were assigned a different HMI condition/segment in a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicate that drivers’ visual attention using the advanced navigation systems HMIs were within US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits. More turns missed in the first route segment, regardless of HMI, were attributable to greater route complexity and a late-onset voice prompt. Participant’s ratings of HMIs were influenced by the context in which that HMI was used.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1709
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Commonality and Differences between Cruiser, Sport, and Touring Motorcycles: An Ergonomics Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0438
This paper presents results of two surveys, namely, a photographic measurements survey and a rider survey, conducted to determine how the type and origin of a motorcycle related to motorcycle dimensions, rider characteristics, seating posture, and motorcycle controls and displays. In the photographic survey, 12 most popular motorcycles covering three types (cruiser, sport, and touring) and three origins (Europe, Asia and North America) were measured from photographs taken in a standardized procedure with and without a rider. The data showed that the Asian and North American cruisers were very similar in all dimensions. These include seat height, seat to handlebar location, seat to foot rest location, foot rest size, and handgrip stance. This resulted in similar rider posture. North American sport motorcycles were more like cruisers than the Asian and European sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell Stack Characterization and its Integration in Simulating a Fuel Cell Powertrain

2008-06-23
2008-01-1796
Fuel cell based powertrains are considered as potential candidates for future vehicles. Modeling of vehicle powertrains, using a combination of components and energy storage media, are widely used to predict vehicle performances under different duty cycles. This paper deals with performance analysis of a light-duty vehicle comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack, in combination with different energy storage systems using Powertrain Simulation Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The performance of the stack was characterized by experimental data on a smaller PEM stack and was used in the simulation. The stack data was collected at controlled loading and thermal parameters. Three energy storage systems are considered in the analysis: nickel metal hydride battery storage, lithium-ion battery storage and ultra capacitor energy storage. The simulation results were analyzed for comparative evaluations and to optimize the performance of the fuel cell powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Sybil Attacks on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

2008-04-14
2008-01-0770
Security is a huge concern in VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks) since the information being conveyed may affect life-or-death decisions. One of the security concerns is the Sybil Attack. This attack attempts to create multiple identities to disrupt or control the network. A malicious node utilizing the Sybil Attack in VANETs can disrupt the network in various ways. It can create a large number of Sybil nodes to intervene in message forwarding, potentially causing a massive pileup and great loss of life. A malicious node can also use the Sybil Attack to create illusions of traffic congestions, getting other drivers to take alternate routes and leaving a clear path for the malicious node to its destination. In this paper, we discuss several defense strategies for the Sybil Attack in VANETs.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive of a Tram with an Average Floor

2008-06-23
2008-01-1828
The urban trams with a low floor are more convenient for the passengers, and with a high floor - more cheaply and more technologically during manufacturing and operation. The combined advantages those and others in themselves are trams with average height of a floor, but for this purpose it is necessary to lower height of tram carriages, that is reached by application of electric motors with a small stator external diameter. It is offered in this the perspective electric drive on the base of the synchronous motor with independent excitation. The salient rotor poles of the motor do not contain windings. The motors stator is carried out on the base of the stator body of regular AC electric motor. The multiphase winding is located in the stator. A winding section, which conductors settle down above the between rotor poles, carry out a role of the excitation winding, and others, which conductors lay above poles, - a role of the armature winding.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

2013-04-08
2013-01-0202
We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Technical Paper

Development of Specifications for the UM-D's Low Mass Vehicle for China, India and the United States

2005-04-11
2005-01-1027
This paper presents results of a research project conducted to develop a methodology and to refine the specifications of a small, low mass, low cost vehicle being developed at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. The challenge was to assure that the design would meet the needs and expectations of customers in three different countries, namely, China, India and the United States. U.S, Chinese and Indian students studying on the university campus represented customers from their respective countries for our surveys and provided us with the necessary data on: 1) Importance of various vehicle level attributes to the entry level small car customer, 2) Preferences to various features, and 3) Direction magnitude estimation on parameters to size the vehicle for each of the three markets.
Technical Paper

Towards Development of a Methodology to Measure Perception of Quality of Interior Materials

2005-04-11
2005-01-0973
The automotive interior suppliers are challenged to develop materials, that not only perform functionally, but also provide the right combination sensory experience (e.g. visual appeal, tactile feeling) and brand differentiation at very competitive costs. Therefore, the objective of this research presented in this paper is to develop a methodology that can be used to measure customer perception of interior materials and to come up with a unique system for assessing value of different interior materials. The overall methodology involves the application of a number of psychophysical measurement methods (e.g. Semantic Differential Scaling) and statistical methods to assess: 1) overall customer perceived quality of materials, 2) elements (or attributes) of perception, and 3) value of materials from OEM's viewpoint in terms of the measurement of perception of quality divided by a measure of cost.
Journal Article

Active Thermal Management with a Dual Mode Coolant Pump

2013-04-08
2013-01-0849
A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0069
This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Hard Disks in Vehicles- Usages and Challenges

2006-04-03
2006-01-0814
With recent advances in microprocessors and data storage technologies, vehicle users can now bring or access large amounts of data in vehicles for purposes such as communication (e.g. e-mail, phone books), entertainment (e.g. music and video files), browsing and searching for information (e.g. on-board computers and internet). The challenge for the vehicle designer is how to design data displays and retrieval methods to allow data search and manipulation tasks by managing driver workload at safe acceptable levels. This paper presents a data retrieval menu system developed to assess levels of screens (depth of menu) that may be needed to select required information when a vehicle is equipped with the capability to access audio files, cell phone, PDA, e-mail and “On-star” type functions.
Technical Paper

The Application of Middleware to In-Vehicle Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0264
With the increasing presence of the Internet in today's applications, ranging from legacy enterprise systems to handheld devices and home appliances, there is an increasing need for a generic middleware that can enable the interoperability between heterogeneous systems. In the specific case of in-vehicle networks, a generic middleware would enable the vehicle/driver to interact with a diversity of applications, including legacy enterprise systems, other embedded systems and wireless ad-hoc and ubiquitous applications. This paper is the result of an initial investigation into the requirements for such a middleware, and possible directions to be taken for its implementation.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Computer System for the Control of Refrigerant Flow

1997-02-24
970108
This paper presents a real-time computer system for the control of refrigerant flow in an automotive air conditioning system. This is an experimental system used to investigate the potential advantages of electronic flow control over conventional flow control (using an orifice tube or thermal expansion valve). Two features of this system are presented. First, the system organization is described. Second, the control and interface software are presented. The emphasis is on the software. The system is organized as a closed loop control system. The inputs to the controller are measurements of the refrigerant system. In particular, thermocouples are used to measure the refrigerant temperature before and after the evaporator. The analog thermocouple signals are converted to digital form by an off-the-shelf, portable, data acquisition system (DAQ). Via a parallel port link, these digital measurements are transfered to a laptop computer.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0872
As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
X