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Technical Paper

Varying the Polyurethane Foam Ratio for Better Acoustic Performance and Mass Savings

2011-05-17
2011-01-1736
Flexible molded polyurethane foams are widely used in automotive industry. As porous-elastic materials, they can be used as decoupler layers in conventional sound insulation constructions or as sound absorbers in vehicle trim parts. Flexible molded polyurethane foams are produced by reacting of liquid Isocyanate (Iso) with a liquid Polyol blend, catalysts, and other additives. Their acoustic performance can be changed by varying the mixing ratio, the weight proportion of two components: Iso and Polyol. Consequently, the sound insertion loss (IL) of barrier/foam constructions and acoustic absorption of a single foam layer will vary. In this paper, based on one industry standard flexible molded polyurethane foam process, the relationship between foam mixing ratio and foam acoustic performance is studied in terms of IL and sound absorption test results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Wheel Assembly Non Uniformity on Disc Brake Lateral Runout

2011-09-18
2011-01-2378
The importance of achieving good (low) assembled lateral runout of the brake disc is well recognized in the industry - it is a critical feature for avoiding issues such as wear-induced disc thickness variation and vibration/shudder during braking. Significant efforts and expense has been invested by the industry into reducing disc brake lateral runout. However, wheel assemblies also have some inherent runout, which in turn cause cyclical forces to act on the brake corner during vehicle movement. Despite the stiffness of the wheel bearing (which aligns the brake disc with the caliper and knuckle), these “tire non-uniformity” forces can be sufficient to promote deflection of the assembly that is appreciable compared to typical disc lateral runout tolerances. This paper covers measurements of this phenomenon on three different vehicles (compact, mid-size, and large cars), under a variety of operating conditions such as speed, wheel assembly runout, and wheel assembly balance.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Finite Element Tools to Model Objective Seat Comfort Results

2012-04-16
2012-01-0074
The comfort assessment of seats in the automotive industry has historically been accomplished by subjective ratings. This approach is expensive and time consuming since it involves multiple prototype seats and numerous people in supporting processes. In order to create a more efficient and robust method, objective metrics must be developed and utilized to establish measurable boundaries for seat performance. Objective measurements already widely accepted, such as IFD (Indentation Force Deflection) or CFD (Compression Force Deflection) [1], have significant shortcomings in defining seat comfort. The most obvious deficiency of these component level tests is that they only deal with a seats' foam rather than the system response. Consequently, these tests fail to take into account significant factors that affect seat comfort such as trim, suspension, attachments and other components.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Design Concepts for Automotive Center Consoles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1474
The objective of the paper is to present a unique design approach and its outputs: the design concepts for automotive center consoles for a near term SUV that can be produced in 2-3 years, and the second for, a more futuristic SUV, that could be produced in 10 or more years. In the first phase of this two phase project, we benchmarked center consoles from a number of existing and concept vehicles, analyzed available data (e.g. J.D. Power customer feedback surveys), and conducted studies (e.g. survey of items stored in the vehicles, item location preferences in the console area) to understand customer/user needs in designing the center consoles. In the second phase, we provided the information generated in the first phase to four groups of student teams who competed to create winning designs of the center consoles.
Technical Paper

Interfacial Fracture in Environmentally Friendly Thermoplastic Composite-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0117
This paper investigates the interfacial fracture properties of composite-metal laminates by using the single-cantilever beam testing technique. The hybrid systems consisted of a layer of aluminum alloy (6061 or 2024-T3) bonded to polypropylene based composites. In this study, two non-chromate surface treatments were applied to the aluminum substrates: SafeGard CC-300 Chrome free seal (from Sanchem Inc.) and TCP-HF (from Metalast International Inc.). These are environmentally friendly surface treatments that enhance the adhesion and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. Flat hybrid panels were manufactured using a one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Single cantilever bend specimens were cut from the panels and tested at 1mm/min. Results have shown that the CC-300 treated Al 2024-T3 alloy and Twintex exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy values.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of Thermoplastic Lightweight Fiber-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0118
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper

Formability of Ti-TWBs at Elevated Temperatures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0353
In this paper, the formability of Ti-TWBs at different elevated temperatures is experimentally investigated. Ti-TWBs made of Ti-6Al-4V sheets with thicknesses of 0.7mm and 1.0mm are manufactured. Then, the tensile test and forming test at elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 600°C, have been carried out to determine the mechanical properties and the formability of the prepared Ti-TWBs respectively. The effects of elevated temperatures on both the forming and failure behaviors of the Ti-TWBs are examined by comparing with that of the Ti-6Al-4V base metal. It is found that the formability of the Ti-TWBs at room temperature with a dissimilar thickness combination is lower than that of their base metal, whilst the formability of both the Ti-TWBs and their base metal increases with increasing forming temperature. In addition, failures have often been found at the thinner base metal during the Ti-TWB forming, provided that the quality weld is attained without defect.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0453
This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
Technical Paper

Prestrain Effect on Fatigue of DP600 Sheet Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0995
The component being formed experiences some type of prestrain that may have an effect on its fatigue strength. This study investigated the forming effects on material fatigue strength of dual phase sheet steel (DP600) subjected to various uniaxial prestrains. In the as-received condition, DP600 specimens were tested for tensile properties to determine the prestraining level based on the uniform elongation corresponding to the maximum strength of DP600 on the stress-strain curve. Three different levels of prestrain at 90%, 70% and 50% of the uniform elongation were applied to uniaxial prestrain specimens for tensile tests and fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted with strain controlled to obtain fatigue properties and compare them with the as-received DP600. The fatigue test results were presented with strain amplitude and Neuber's factor.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

2008-04-14
2008-01-0144
Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Structural Automotive Applications

2002-06-03
2002-01-1891
This paper presents cost-benefit analysis of glass and carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites for structural automotive applications based on press forming operation. Press forming is very similar to stamping operation for steel. The structural automotive applications involve beam type components. The part selected for a case study analysis is a crossbeam support for instrument panels.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Experimental Validation of Path-Dependent Forming Limit Diagrams of VDIF Steel

1998-02-23
980079
Strains in most stamped parts are produced under non-proportional loading. Limit strains induced during forming are, therefore, path dependent. Experimental Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) are usually determined under proportional loading and are not applicable to most forming operations. Experimental results have shown that path dependent FLDs are different from those determined under proportional loading. A number of analytical methods have been used to predict FLDs under proportional loading. The authors have recently introduced a new method for predicting FLDs based on the theory of damage mechanics. The damage model was used successfully to predict proportional FLDs for VDIF steel and Al6111-T4. In this paper, the anisotropic damage model was used to predict non-proportional FLDs for VDIF steel. Experiments were conducted to validate model predictions by applying pre-stretch in plane strain followed by uniaxial and balanced biaxial tension.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming using Damage Based User Subroutine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1129
LS-DYNA3D has been widely used to perform computer simulation of sheet metal forming. In the material library of LS-DYNA3D there are a number of user defined material models. In order to take full advantage of the material subroutines, it is important for the users to be able to display user defined history variables in the post processing and to establish user-defined failure criterion. In this report, the development of a damage coupled plastic model is firstly described. The damage model is then programmed in a user defined material subroutine. This is followed by performing finite element simulation of sheet metal forming with the LS-DYNA3D that has incorporated the damage coupled plastic model. The way to display the user defined history variables and how to deal with the failure criterion during the postprocessing of ETA/DYNAFORM are described. History variable distributions at several time steps are displayed and discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Limit Strains in Sheet Metal Forming Under Complex Strain History

2000-03-06
2000-01-0776
In this paper, a predictive method is developed to determine the forming limit strain and fracture limit strain in a stamped automotive component subjected to a complex strain history that would be experienced during an actual forming operation. The method of analysis is based on a damage mechanics model developed recently by the authors and extended to take into account the hysteretic effects of the principal strain and damage planes. The forming limit and fracture limit strains are then predicted using the modified damage model. Satisfactory predictions have been achieved for a practical case where the complex strain history is prescribed based an actual stamping operation.
Technical Paper

Formability of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0772
The use of tailor welded blanks (TWBs) in automotive applications is increasing due to the potential of weight and cost savings. These blanks are manufactured by joining two or more sheets of dissimilar gauge, properties, or both, to form a lighter blank of desired strength and stiffness. This allows an engineer to “tailor” the properties of the blank to meet the design requirements of a particular panel. TWBs are used in such places as door inner panels, lift gates, and floor pans. Earlier investigations of the use of TWBs targeted steel alloys, but the potential of further weight savings with aluminum TWBs is gaining interest in the automotive industry. Unlike steel TWBs, the welds in aluminum TWBs are not significantly stronger than the base material and are occasionally the fracture site. Additionally, the reduced formability of aluminum, as compared with drawing-quality steels, makes the application of aluminum TWBs more difficult than steel TWBs.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermoforming as a Method of Manufacturing Plastic Air Intake Manifolds

2000-03-06
2000-01-0045
Current plastic intake manifolds are manufactured using the injection molding process. In this paper, thermoforming is explored as an alternative to injection molding for making intake manifold shells, which can then be joined by one of the welding techniques used for thermoplastic materials. The investigation reported here includes press-forming experiments of a simple bowl shaped shell and subsequent welding experiments to join these shells.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Forming Limit Diagram with Damage Analysis

1996-02-01
960598
Based on the theory of damage mechanics, an orthotropic damage model for the prediction of forming limit diagram (FLD) is developed. The conventional method of FLD used to predict localized necking adopts two fundamentally different approaches. Under biaxial loading, the Hill's plasticity method is often chosen when α (= ε2/ε1) < 0. On the other hand, the M-K method is adopted for the prediction of localized necking when α > 0 or the biaxial stretching of sheet metal is pronounced. The M-K method however suffers from the arbitrary selection of the imperfection size, thus resulting in inconsistent predictions. The orthotropic damage model developed for predicting the FLD is based on the anisotropic damage model recently proposed by Chow et al (1993). The model is extended to take into account, during the sheet forming process, orthotropic plasticity and damage. The orthotropic FLD model consists of the constitutive equations of elasticity and plasticity coupled with damage.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
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