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Technical Paper

Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology

Diesel engines have traditionally been favoured in heavy-duty applications for their fuel economy, robustness, reliability and relative lack of fuel sensitivity. Recently it has seen a growth in its popularity in light duty applications due particularly to its fuel efficiency. However, as the engine technology and particularly the fuel injection equipment has evolved to meet ever stricter emissions legislation the engines have become more sensitive to deposit formation resulting from changes in fuel quality. This paper reviews bouts of concern over diesel fuel injector deposits, possible causes for the phenomenon and test methods designed to screen fuels to eliminate problems.
Journal Article

The Influence of Injection Strategy and Glow Plug Temperature on Cycle by Cycle Stability Under Cold Idling Conditions for a Low Compression Ratio, HPCR Diesel Engine

Experimental studies have been undertaken on a single-cylinder HPCR diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15.5:1 to explore the effect of fuel injection strategy on cycle by cycle stability. The influence of the number, separation and quantity of pilot injections on the coefficient of variation of IMEP has been investigated at -20°C, 1000 rev/min, post-start idling conditions. Injection strategy and glow plug temperature trade-off has also been investigated at a range of soak temperatures. Up to four pilot injections have been used. For timing of the main injection near to the optimum, CoVIMEP values of 10% or better can be achieved. Closer spacing of injections improved stability and extended the range of timings to meet target stability. The best combinations of pilot number and pilot quantity varied with total fuel delivered.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Characteristics and History of Deposits Formed Within High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

The recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with the moves in the US to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators regarding fuel system deposit formation issues. These deposits not only form on and within the fuel injectors but they also form elsewhere in the fuel system, due to fuel recirculation. These will eventually accumulate in the fuel filters. Historically, diesel fuel system deposits have been attributed to contamination of the fuel or the degradation of the fuel with age. Such age related degradation has been attributed to oxidation of the fuel via well documented pathways, although the initiation of this process is still poorly understood. Papers at recent SAE meetings in Florence, San Antonio, Rio de Janeiro, San Diego and Kyoto have addressed many of these causes.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

DISI Engine Spark and Fuel Injection Timings. Effects, Compromise and Robustness

DISI engine emissions and fuel economy are strongly dependent upon fuel injection and spark timings, particularly when the engine is operating in stratified charge mode. Experimental studies of the effects of injection and spark timings and the interaction between these are described. The sensitivity of HC and NOx emissions to timings during stratified charge operation, the comparison of performance under stratified and homogeneous charge modes of operation and the rationale for mode switch point settings are investigated. The high sensitivity of emissions to injection and spark timing settings gives rise to potential robustness issues. These are described.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Intra-Cycle Resolution of Heat Transfer to Fuel in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

Previously reported studies of heat transfer between the intake port surface, gas flows in the port, and fuel deposited in surface films have been extended to examine details of the heat flux variations which occur within the engine cycle. The dynamic response characteristics of the surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been determined, and measured heat flux data corrected accordingly to account for these characteristics. Details of the model and data processing technique used are described. Corrected intra-cycle variations of heat transfer to fuel deposited have been derived for engine operating conditions at 1000 RPM covering a range of manifold pressures, fuel supply rates, port surface temperatures, and fuel injection timings. Both pump-grade gasoline and isooctane fuel have been used. The effects of operating conditions on the magnitude and features of the heat flux variations are described.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines for Transient Fuel Compensation

The fuel transfer characteristics of the intake port of a fuel-injected spark ignition engine have been determined for engine warm-up conditions following cold starts at temperature down to -30°C and extending to fully-warm states, using a method based upon perturbing fuel injection rate and recording AFR response. The variation of τ and x parameters over a range of temperatures, engine speeds, AFR, and engine loads has been evaluated. Temperature and speed have greatest influence, AFR and load effects are small. Application of the data to define transient fuel compensation requirements has been examined.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Diesel Injector Deposits Characterization and Testing

Over the last decade, there has been an impetus in the automobile industry to develop new diesel injector systems, driven by a desire to reduce fuel consumption and proscribed by the requirement to fulfil legislation emissions. The modern common-rail diesel injector system has been developed by the industry to fulfil these aspirations, designed with ever-higher tolerances and pressures, which have led to concomitant increases in fuel temperatures after compression with reports of fuel temperatures of ~150°C at 1500-2500 bar. This engineering solution in combination with the introduction of Ultra Low Sulphur diesel fuel (ULSD) has been found to be highly sensitive to deposit formation both external injector deposits (EDID) and internal (IDID). The deposits have caused concerns for customers with poor spray patterns misfiring injector malfunction and failure, producing increased fuel consumption and emissions.
Technical Paper

Internal Diesel Injector Deposit Chemical Speciation and Quantification Using 3D OrbiSIMS and XPS Depth Profiling

The impact of internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) on engine performance, efficiency and emissions remains a major concern in the automotive industry. This has been compounded in recent years by fuel injection equipment developments and changes to diesel fuel towards ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel as well as the introduction of new fuels such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). Prevention and mitigation of such deposit formation requires an understanding of the formation process, which demands a chemical explanation. The chemistry of these deposits therefore remains a key research interest to the industry using the latest analytical methodologies to inform and build further on previous investigations.