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Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0786
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion Robustness in Catalyst Heating Operation on a Spray Guided DISI Engine, Part II - Measurements of Spray Development, Combustion Imaging and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0603
In-cylinder spray imaging by Mie scattering has been taken with frame rates up to 27,000 fps, along with high speed video photography of chemiluminescence and soot thermal radiation. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the presence of OH*, CH* and C2* emissions lines, and their magnitude relative compared to soot radiation. Filtering for CH* has been used with both the high speed video and a Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT). The PMT signals have been found to correlate with the rate of heat release derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements. A high power photographic strobe has been used to illuminate the fuel spray. Images show that the fuel spray can strike the ground strap of the spark plug, break up, and a fuel cloud then drifts over and under the strap through the spark plug gap. Tests have conducted at two different spark plug orientations using a single spark strategy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements: Comparing First and Second Generation DISI with PFI in Single Cylinder Optical Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1263
A Spray Guided Direct Injection (SGDI) engine has been shown to emit less Particulate Matter (PM) than a first generation (wall guided) Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. The reduction is attributed to the reduced incidence of fuel-wall impingement and higher fuel injection pressure. The extent to which this is true was investigated by comparison between single cylinder SGDI and DISI engines. Both engines were also operated with conventional port injection to provide a baseline. Feedgas PM number concentration and size spectra were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer for the fuels iso-octane and toluene with a range of Air-Fuel Ratios (AFRs), ignition and injection timings.
Technical Paper

Burn Rate and Instantaneous Heat Flux Study of Iso-octane, Toluene and Gasoline in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0469
The burn rate and the instantaneous in-cylinder heat transfer have been studied experimentally in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine with three different fuels: gasoline, iso-octane and toluene. The effects of the ignition timing, air fuel ratio, fuel injection timing and injection strategy (direct injection or port injection) on the burn rate and the in-cylinder heat transfer have been experimentally investigated at a standard mapping point (1500 rpm and 0.521 bar MAP) with the three different fuels. The burn rate analysis was deduced from the in-cylinder pressure measurement. A two-dimensional heat conduction model of the thermocouple was used to calculate the heat flux from the measured surface temperature. An engine thermodynamic simulation code was used to predict the gas-to-wall heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Quantitative PLIF: Robust Engineering Measurements of Cyclic Variation in a Firing Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1073
Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence has been widely accepted and applied to measurements of fuel concentration distributions in IC engines. The need for such measurements has increased with the introduction of Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engines, where it is critical to understand the influence of mixture inhomogeneity on ignition and subsequent combustion, and in particular the implications for cyclic variability. The apparent simplicity of PLIF has led to misunderstanding of the technique when applied to quantitative measurements of fuel distributions. This paper presents a series of engineering methods for optimizing, calibrating and referencing, which together demonstrate a quantitative measure of fuel concentration with an absolute accuracy of 10%. PLIF is widely used with single component fuels as carriers for the fluorescent tracers.
Technical Paper

Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0991
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
Journal Article

Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Analysis of Two-Colour PLIF Temperature Measurements Calibrated with Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy in a Firing GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0722
In-cylinder temperatures and their cyclic variations strongly influence many aspects of internal combustion engine operation, from chemical reaction rates determining the production of NOx and particulate matter to the tendency for auto-ignition leading to knock in spark ignition engines. Spatially resolved measurements of temperature can provide insights into such processes and enable validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations used to model engine performance and guide engine design. This work uses a combination of Two-Colour Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (TC-PLIF) and Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) to measure the in-cylinder temperature distributions of a firing optically accessible spark ignition engine. TC-PLIF performs 2-D temperature measurements using fluorescence emission in two different wavelength bands but requires calibration under conditions of known temperature, pressure and composition.
Technical Paper

Fast NGC: A New On-Line Technique for Fuel Flow Measurement

2019-01-15
2019-01-0062
Knowledge of fuel mass injected in an individual cycle is important for engine performance and modelling. Currently direct measurements of fuel flow to individual cylinders of an engine are not possible on-engine or in real-time due to a lack of available appropriate measurement techniques. The objective of this work was to undertake real-time Coriolis fuel flow measurement using GDI injectors on a rig observing fuel mass flow rate within individual fuel injections. This paper evaluates the potential of this technology - combining Coriolis Flow Meters (CFMs) with Prism signal processing together known as Fast Next Generation Coriolis (Fast NGC), and serves as a basis for future transitions on-engine applications. A rig-based feasibility study has been undertaken injecting gasoline through a GDI injector at 150 bar in both single shot mode and at a simulated engine speeds of 1788 and 2978 rpm. The results show that these injections can, in principle, be observed.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of Fuel/Air Interactions in a Modern High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0075
Modern diesel cars, fitted with state-of-the-art aftertreatment systems, have the capability to emit extremely low levels of pollutant species at the tailpipe. However, diesel aftertreatment systems can represent a significant cost, packaging and maintenance requirement. Reducing engine-out emissions in order to reduce the scale of the aftertreatment system is therefore a high priority research topic. Engine-out emissions from diesel engines are, to a significant degree, dependent on the detail of fuel/air interactions that occur in-cylinder, both during the injection and combustion events and also due to the induced air motion in and around the bowl prior to injection. In this paper the effect of two different piston bowl shapes are investigated.
Technical Paper

Optical Techniques that can be Applied to Investigate GDI Engine Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0046
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine mixture preparation and combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is also crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of optical techniques; the interpretation of the results is engine specific so will not be covered here. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions.
Technical Paper

The Oxford Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST) for Fuel Spray and Chemical Kinetics Research

2018-04-03
2018-01-0222
A new reflected shock tube facility, the Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST), has been designed, built and commissioned at the University of Oxford for investigating IC engine fuel spray physics and chemistry. Fuel spray and chemical kinetics research requires its test gas to be at engine representative pressures and temperatures. A reflected shock tube generates these extreme conditions in the test gas for short durations (order milliseconds) by transiently compressing it through a reflected shock process. The CDST has been designed for a nominal test condition of 6 MPa, 900 K slug of air (300 mm long) for a steady test duration of 3 ms. The facility is capable of studying reacting mixtures at higher pressures (up to 150 bar) than other current facilities, whilst still having comparable size (100 mm diameter) and optical access to interrogate the fuel spray with high speed imaging and laser diagnostics.
Journal Article

A New Method for Measuring Fuel Flow in an Individual Injection in Real Time

2018-04-03
2018-01-0285
Knowledge of fuel mass injected in an individual cycle is important for engine performance and modeling. At the moment, such measurements are not possible on engine or in real time. In this article, a new method using Coriolis flow meters (CFMs) and a new, patented, signal processing technique, known as the Prism, are introduced. CFMs are extensively used for flow measurement both in the automotive industry and further afield and, when coupled with the Prism, have the potential to make these challenging high-speed measurements. A rig-based feasibility study was conducted injecting very small quantities of diesel (3 mg) at pressures of up to 1000 bar at simulated engine speeds of up to 4000 rpm. The results show that these small quantities can in principle be measured. The results also reveal a previously unknown behavior of CFMs when measuring very low flow rates at high speed.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1710
Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
Technical Paper

Multi-Plane PIV Measurements in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2049
The flows in-cylinder have a profound effect on the mixture preparation and subsequent combustion in all engines. These flows are highly three-dimensional in nature and information from multiple planes is required to characterise the flow dynamics. The flow measurements reported here are from three orthogonal planes in an optical access engine that is based on the Jaguar Land Rover AJ200 Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been taken every 5°CA from the start of induction to the end of compression. Data have been obtained from 300 cycles for separate experiments measuring flows in the tumble plane, the swirl plane and the cross-tumble plane. Vector comparison metrics are used to quantitatively compare ensemble averaged PIV flow fields to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations across each plane in terms of both the velocity magnitude and direction.
Technical Paper

The Effect of an Active Thermal Coating on Efficiency and Emissions from a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0807
This study looked into the application of active thermal coatings on the surfaces of the combustion chamber as a method of improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. The active thermal coating was applied to a production aluminium piston and its performance was compared against a reference aluminium piston on a single-cylinder diesel engine. The two pistons were tested over a wide range of speed/load conditions and the effects of EGR and combustion phasing on engine performance and tailpipe emissions were also investigated. A detailed energy balance approach was employed to study the thermal behaviour of the active thermal coating. In general, improvements in indicated specific fuel consumption were not statistically significant for the coated piston over the whole test matrix. Mean exhaust temperature showed a marginal increase with the coated piston of up to 6 °C.
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