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Technical Paper

Initial Stress and Manufacture Stress Testing in Transparent Material

2007-04-16
2007-01-1215
Transparent materials such as Plexiglas and glass are applied in airplane and boat widely as the windows and hatches. There are three type stresses in the structure made of Plexiglas or glass, which are residual stresses from the casting, residual stresses due to manufacturing process involving sheet forming structure and the stresses from serving period. In the paper the stresses are studied by laser scattered Photoelasticy method. Phase shift method is presented to recognize scattered light patterns automatically. The residual stresses in Plexiglas plate and shell were analyzed by thin plate-shell theory. Stresses in the Plexiglas and shell were tested by laser scattered Photoelastic method.
Technical Paper

A Solution to Fuel Vaporization Problem in a Power Nozzle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1051
A power nozzle is a fuel injection actuator in which fuel is instantly compressed and then discharged by a solenoid piston pump with nozzle. Fuel vaporization inside the power nozzles is a challenging issue. This paper presents an effective solution to the fuel vaporization problem in the power nozzle. An applied physical process, fluid boundary layer pumping (FBLP), is found in this study. FBLP can result in fuel circulation within the fuel line of the power nozzle, which on one hand brings heat out of the power nozzle, and on the other hand blocks vapor from entering the piston pump.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Liquid Fuel Spray and Combustion with Gradually Varying Grid

2013-10-14
2013-01-2634
In this work, large eddy simulation (LES) with a K-equation subgrid turbulent kinetic energy model is implemented into the CFD code KIVA3V to study the features of liquid fuel spray and combustion using gradually varying grid in a constant volume chamber. The characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) incorporating a turbulent timescale is adopted to predict the combustion process and the SHELL auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition. Combustion is also simulated using Parallel Detailed Chemistry with Lu's n-heptane reduced mechanism (58 species), which has been added into the KIVA3V-LES code. The computational results are compared with Sandia experimental data for non-reacting and reacting cases. As a result, LES can capture the complex structure of the spray and temperature distribution as well as the trend of ignition delay and flame lift-off length variations. Better results are obtained using the Parallel Detailed Chemistry than the CTC model.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Combined Power and Cooling Cycle Driven by the Exhaust Heat Form a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0858
A novel combined power and cooling cycle based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the Compression Refrigeration Cycle (CRC) is proposed. The cycle can be driven by the exhaust heat from a diesel engine. In this combined cycle, ORC will translate the exhaust heat into power, and drive the compressor of CRC. The prime advantage of the combined cycle is that both the ORC and CRC are trans-critical cycles, and using CO₂ as working fluid. Natural, cheap, environmentally friendly, nontoxic and good heat transfer properties are some advantages of CO₂ as working fluid. In this paper, besides the basic combined cycle (ORC-CRC), another three novel cycles: ORC-CRC with an expander (ORC-CRCE), ORC with an internal heat exchanger as heat accumulator combined with CRC (ORCI-CRC), ORCI-CRCE, are analyzed and compared.
Journal Article

Front Rail Crashworthiness Design for Front Oblique Impact Using a Magic Cube Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-0651
The front rail, as one main energy absorption component of vehicle front structures, should present steady progressive collapse along its axis and avoid bending collapse during the front oblique impact, but when the angle of loading direction is larger than some critical angle, it will appear bending collapse causing reduced capability of crash energy absorption. This paper is concerned with crashworthiness design of the front rail on a vehicle chassis frame structure considering uncertain crash directions. The objective is to improve the crash direction adaptability of the front rail, without deteriorating the vehicle's crashworthiness performance. Magic Cube (MQ) approach, a systematic design approach, is conducted to analyze the design problem. By applying Space Decomposition of MQ, an equivalent model of the vehicle chassis frame is generated, which simplifies the design problem.
Technical Paper

Influences of subgrid turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dispersion on the characteristics of fuel spray

2011-08-30
2011-01-1839
A large eddy simulation approach and different breakup models are used to analyze fuel injection and atomization processes in a constant volume combustion bomb. The study is focused on the influences of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy, especially the source term induced by the fuel spray, on the droplet movement and spray characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of different subgrid scale (SGS) models, including the constant coefficient and dynamic Smagorinsky models, WALE model and the K-equation turbulent energy transport model, on fuel sprays and the turbulent dispersion of droplets are examined. Factors affecting the fuel spray are discussed based on numerical computations for various operating conditions and are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel PCCI Combustion: Potential to Extend Engine Load, Improve Trade-off of Emissions and Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1396
The Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engine has the potential to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency at part load conditions. However, several technical barriers must be overcome. Notably ways must be found to control ignition timing, expand its limited operation range and limit the rate of heat release. In this paper, comparing with single fuel injection, the superiority of multiple-pulse fuel injection in extending engine load, improve emissions and thermal efficiency trade-off using high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and boost in diesel PCCI combustion is studied by engine experiments and simulation study. It was found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions, reduce the reaction speed to avoid knock combustion in high load, is a very useful method to expand high load limit of PCCI. EGR can reduce the NOx emission to a very small value in PCCI.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Disturbance Estimation Based Modeling Technique for Control and Prediction in Controllable Mechanical Turbo-Compounding System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0023
Modeling techniques matter a lot in many fields of engine engineering. Models are requested not only for control design but also for dynamic prediction. However, problems might be encountered during modeling process either because of the system complexity or the unaffordable modeling cost. As a result, a new modeling technique based on disturbance estimation is proposed in this paper. By employing the proposed modeling technique, models are set up in real time with the online information from input and output. The uncertainties of system dynamics are handled as internal disturbance of the system, while the perturbation from outside are taken as the external disturbance, and the combination of the two can be estimated online by a kind of active observer called extended state observer (ESO).
Technical Paper

Study on Methods of Coupling Numerical Simulation of Conjugate Heat Transfer and In-Cylinder Combustion Process in GDI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0576
Wall temperature in GDI engine is influenced by both water jacket and gas heat source. In turn, wall temperature affects evaporation and mixing characteristics of impingement spray as well as combustion process and emissions. Therefore, in order to accurately simulate combustion process, accurate wall temperature is essential, which can be obtained by conjugate heat transfer (CHT) and piston heat transfer (PHT) models based on mapping combustion results. This CHT model considers temporal interaction between solid parts and cooling water. This paper presents an integrated methodology to reliably predict in-cylinder combustion process and temperature field of a 2.0L GDI engine which includes engine head/block/gasket and water jacket components. A two-way coupling numerical procedure on the basis of this integrated methodology is as follows.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of the Steady-State Scavenging Flow Characteristics of a Two-Stroke Marine Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0558
The scavenging process in two-stroke marine engines not only transports burnt gas out of the cylinder but also provides fresh air for the next cycle, thereby significantly affecting the engine performance. In order to enhance fuel-air mixing, the scavenging process usually generates swirling flow in uniflow-type scavenging engines. The scavenging stability directly determines the scavenging efficiency and even influences fuel-air mixing, combustion, and emission of the engine. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the scavenging process in a steady-state scavenging flow test is conducted. A precession phenomenon is found in the high swirl model, and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method is used to analyze the reason and the multi-scale characteristics of the precession phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Research in the Effects of Intake Manifold Length and Chamber Shape on Performance for an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1086
In order to improve the fuel consumption and expand the range of low fuel consumption area of a 1.5L Atkinson cycle PFI engine, the effect of the intake manifold length and chamber shape on the engine performance is investigated by setting up a GT-power (1-D) and an AVL-Fire (3-D) computational model which are calibrated with experimental data. After this the new engine was transformed to the test bench to do the calibration experiment. The results demonstrate that the intake manifold case_1 (the length is 300mm, side intake form) matched with a new designed chamber improves combustion in cylinder with a range 1.6∼7.4g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied; the case_3 (the length is 100mm, intermediate intake form) matched with the new designed chamber with a range 3.86∼7g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied. Both case_1 and case_3 expand the range of low fuel consumption area significantly.
Technical Paper

Study on Subcritical/Supercritical Spray Characteristics of a Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injector

2016-04-05
2016-01-0849
Investigations using supercritical spray platform,which allows gasoline at low sub-critical state,subcritical state and supercritical state respectively,were made to demonstrate the Subcritical/ Supercritical Spray Characteristics of a Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injector. The experimental results show that the spray pattern and spray characteristics (i.e. spray penetration distance,spray area and spray perimeter) varied greatly under different state. In subcritical state,the spray characteristics of gasoline is similar to the phenomenon of "flash bfueling",appearing spray entrainment and spray collapse,then spray penetration distance and area drop significantly.In supercritical state,the six-hole gasoline spray is composed by the thick-core region and the thin-diffusion region,and Mach disk is observed at the outlet of the nozzle,then spray penetration distance and area increases sharply.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Abnormal Spray Behaviors of Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2016-04-05
2016-01-0848
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of injection pressures and fuel temperatures on the secondary injection spray evolution at the end of injection from a multi-hole gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector by Mie-scattering technique. The results of this paper show that the overall injection process can be classified into five stages which are injection delay stage, main injection stage, dwell stage, secondary injection stage and ligaments breakup stage respectively. Especially, the secondary injection occurs at the end of main injection, which is abnormal and undesirable spray behaviors. During the injection, big droplets and ligaments are injected through nozzle orifices at low speed. As the injection pressure increases, the phase of the secondary injection advances, and the injection duration decreases. At medium injection pressures (at 6, 8 MPa), more quantity of fuel are injected as ligaments.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (ABE) Blended with Diesel in a Compression-Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0884
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol. As an additive for diesel, it has been shown to improve spray evaporation, improve fuel atomization, enhance air-fuel mixing, and enhance combustion as a whole. The typical compositions of ABE are in a volumetric ratio of 3:6:1 or 6:3:1. From previous studies done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of additional acetone in the blend caused advancement in the combustion phasing, but too much acetone content led to an increase in soot emission during combustion. The objective of this research was to investigate the combustion of these mixtures in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine at different speeds and different loads to study component effects on the various engine conditions. The fuels tested in these experiments were D100, ABE(3:6:1)10, ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(6:3:1)10, and ABE(6:3:1)20.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Sub/Supercritical Gasoline and Iso-Octane Jets in High Temperature Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0289
Based on the temperature and pressure in the cylinder of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines under the common operating conditions, jets´ characteristics of gasoline and iso-octane at different fuel temperatures under the high ambient temperature were studied by means of high-speed photography and striation method. It is found that the supercritical gasoline jet shows the morphological collapse of jet center and the protrusion of the front surface, but the iso-octane jet doesn´t. Meanwhile, as the fuel temperature rises, the flash boiling and the interference between adjacent plumes affect the gasoline jet, and cause the center of the jet to form a high-speed and low-pressure zone, hence the air entrainment in this region contributes to the collapse of jets. The collapse and convergence of jets´ morphology are the main reasons for the change of penetration and cone angle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Impingement of Fuel Droplet on Substrates

2019-04-02
2019-01-0300
Within a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, the impingement of fuel droplet on substrates induces various problems such as particular matter emission, oil dilution and abnormal combustion. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is urgent to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of fuel droplet impacting on substrates. Most previous studies have focused on the impingement of either water droplet on dry solid surface or the impinging droplet on the liquid film of the same type of liquid, while little research has been conducted on the impingement of fuel droplet on relevant substrates existing in GDI engines. The impingement of fuel droplet with higher Weber number on dry surface, fuel film and oil film with different thickness and viscosity were investigated experimentally. Results show that fuel droplet impacting on dry wall is easy to be deposited to form a fuel film. The fuel film attached to the wall is the main reason for the splash.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Gasoline Dual-Fuel in a SI Engine at Different Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1140
Methane as an attractive alternative fuel offers the most potential in clean combustion and low CO2 emissions. In this work, combustion characteristics of methane/gasoline dual-fuel were investigated in a spark-ignited engine with port-injection of methane and direct-injection of gasoline, allowing for variations in methane addition and excess air coefficient. Engine experimental results showed that under low load conditions, as methane mass rate was raised, there was a promotion in methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion, and this became more obvious at lean conditions. Similar observations were also obtained when the engine was operated at intermediate load conditions, but a prolonged combustion duration was found with the methane addition. Further analysis showed that the promotion of methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion with methane addition mainly occurred in the early stage of combustion, especially for lean conditions.
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