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Technical Paper

Emissions from Compression Ignition Engines with Animal-Fat-Derived Biodiesel Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1600
Biodiesel and other renewable fuels are of interest due to their impact on energy supplies as well as their potential for carbon emissions reductions. Waste animal fats from meat processing facilities, which would otherwise be sent to landfill, have been proposed as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Emissions from biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils have undergone intense study, but there remains a lack of data describing the emissions implications of using animal fats as a biodiesel feedstock. In this study, emissions of NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter from a compression ignition engine were examined. The particulate matter emissions were characterized using gravimetric analysis, elemental carbon analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The emissions from an animal fat derived B20 blend were compared to those from petroleum diesel and a soy derived B20 blend.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fungal Modification on Fiber-Matrix Adhesion in Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

2006-04-03
2006-01-0006
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are beginning to find their way into the commercial automotive market. But, inadequate adhesion between hydrophilic natural fibers and hydrophobic matrix materials affects the performance of the resulting composites. In this study the effect of an environmental friendly fungal treatment on the adhesion characteristics of natural fibers is investigated. Firstly, changes in acid-base characteristics of the modified hemp fibers were studied using Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC). Afterwards, composites were prepared using Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process and the effect of modification on performance and durability of the composites was investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fiber Surface Treatment on the Performance of Hemp Fiber/Acrylic Composites for Automotive Structural Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0005
The use of natural fibers for polymer composite materials has increased tremendously in the last few years. This type of reinforcements offers many advantages such as low density, low cost, high specific strength and low environmental impacts. The performance of the natural fiber composites are affected by the fiber loading, the individual mechanical properties of each component (fiber and matrix), and the fiber and matrix adhesion. Concerning the interfacial interaction, natural fibers present a major drawback because of poor compatibility of fibers with most hydrophobic thermoplastic and thermoset matrix. Hemp fiber/acrylic composites were manufactured with sheet molding technique recently. Although mechanical tests give promising results, they exhibit low tensile strength resulting from a poor fiber/matrix adhesion. The moisture resistance property of the sheet molded composites also needs further improvement.
Technical Paper

Effect of CO2 Content on Foaming Behavior of Recyclable High-Melt-Strength PP

2006-04-03
2006-01-0336
This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming behavior of recyclable high-melt-strength (HMS) branched polypropylene (PP) with CO2 as a blowing agent. The foamability of branched HMS PP has been evaluated using a tandem foaming extruder system. The effects of CO2 and nucleating agent contents on the final foam morphology have been thoroughly investigated. The low density (i.e., 12~14 fold), fine-celled (i.e., 107–109 cells/cm3) PP foams were successfully produced using a small amount of talc (i.e., 0.8 wt%) and 5 wt% CO2.
Technical Paper

Numerical Multiphase Flow Model to Study Channel Flow Dynamics of PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0696
We have studied the effects of water droplets presence in the PEM Fuel cell channel and the way they influence dynamics of the two-phase flow in the channel numerically. Dynamic behavior of a droplet on the surface of a channel has been modeled under the influence of surrounding fluid. Optimal conditions for the displacement of water droplet in the channel flow sought. For this purpose, the yield conditions for the displacement of liquid droplet on the surface of the channel under the influence of channel fluid are determined. The numerical solution is based on solving Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian liquids. The study includes the effect of interfacial forces with constant surface tension, also effect of adhesion between the wall and droplet accounted by implementing contact angle at the wall. The Volume-Of-Fluid method is used to numerically determine the deformation of free surface.
Technical Paper

Microcellular Ceramic Foams: Manufacturing and Study of Acoustical Properties

2007-05-15
2007-01-2187
A novel processing method for fabricating high porosity microcellular ceramic foams for sound absorption applications has been developed. The strategy for fabricating the ceramic foams involves: (i) forming some shapes using a mixture of preceramic polymer and expandable microspheres by a conventional ceramic forming method, (ii) foaming the compact by heating, (iii) cross-linking the foamed body, and (iv) transforming the foamed body into ceramic foams by pyrolysis. By controlling the microsphere content and that of the base elastomer, it was possible to adjust the porosity with a very high open-cell content (ranging between 43 - 95%), high microcellular cell densities (9 × 108 - 1.6 × 109 cells/cm3) and desired expansion ratios (3 - 6 folds). Sound absorption testing has been performed using ASTM C-384 standard test. The preliminary results show that ceramic foams are candidate sound absorption materials.
Technical Paper

Eutectic Segregation and Cracking in AZ91 Friction Stir Spot Welds

2007-04-16
2007-01-1700
Friction stir spot welding of Mg-alloy AZ91 is investigated. The temperature cycles within the stir zone and in the TMAZ region are examined using thermocouples, which are located within the tool itself and also by locating thermocouples in drilled holes at specific locations relative to the bottom of the tool shoulder and the periphery of the rotating pin. The measured temperatures in the stir zone range from 437°C to 460°C (0.98Ts, where Ts is the solidus temperature in degrees Kelvin) in AZ91 spot welds produced using plunge rates from 2.5 and 25 mm/s. The thermal cycle within the stir zone formed during AZ91 spot welding could not be measured by locating thermocouples within the workpiece in drilled holes adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin.
Technical Paper

Foamability of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) with Various Physical Blowing Agents (PBAs)

2006-04-03
2006-01-0972
Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (TPV) is a special class of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) made of a rubber/plastic polymer mixture in which the rubber phase is highly vulcanized. It is prepared by melt mixing a thermoplastic with an elastomer and by in-situ crosslinking of the rubber phase. Currently, TPV is replacing EPDM rubber dramatically because of the impressive advantages for automotive sealing applications. Some of the advantages of TPV compared to that of EPDM rubber are good gloss, recyclability, improved colorability, shorter cycle time and design flexibility. The development of TPV foaming technology is to fulfill the requirement of achieving lower cost, lighter weight and better fuel economy. Foaming of TPV has not been investigated extensively.
Technical Paper

Energy Generation and Stir Zone Dimensions in Friction Stir Spot Welds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0971
Energy generation and utilization during friction stir spot welding of Al 6061-T6 and AM50 sheet materials are investigated. The dimensions of the stir zones during plunge testing are largely unchanged when the tool rotational speed increases from 1500 RPM to 3000 RPM (for a plunge rate of 1 mm/s) and when the rate of tool penetration increases from 1 mm/s to 10 mm/s (for a tool rotational speed of 3000 RPM). The energy resulting from tool rotation is also unaffected when higher tool rotational speeds are applied. The rotating pin accounts for around 70% and 66% of the energy generated when 6.3 mm thick Al 6061-T6 and AM50 sheet materials are spot welded without the application of a dwell period. In direct contrast, the contribution made by the tool shoulder increases to around 48% (Al 6061-T6) and to 65% (AM50) when a four second long dwell period is incorporated during spot welding of 6.3 mm thick sheets.
Journal Article

Selection of Welding Parameter during Friction Stir Spot Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-0146
The selection of parameters during friction stir spot welding of Al-alloys and Mg-alloys is discussed. The role of tool rotation speed, plunge rate, and dwell time is examined in relation to the tool heating rate,temperature, force, and torque that occur during spot welding. In order to reduce the cycle time and tool force during Al- alloy spot welding, it is necessary to increase the tool rotation speed >1500 RPM. The measured peak temperature in the stir zone is determined by the rotation speed and dwell time, and is ultimately limited by the solidus of the alloy. When tool rotation speeds >1500 RPM are employed during AZ91 Mg-alloy spot welding, the tendency for melted film formation and cracking are greatly increased.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Surface Modification on the Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fiber/Polyester Composites

2004-03-08
2004-01-0728
In this work hemp fibers were chemically treated in order to improve the fiber/matrix interaction in hemp fiber/unsaturated polyester composites prepared by a Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process. Chemicals used for paper sizing (AKD, ASA, Rosin Acid and SMA) as well as a silane compound and sodium hydroxide were used to modify the fibers' surface. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the resulting materials were measured. A slight improvement in mechanical properties was observed for the SMA, silane and alkali treated specimens. However close analysis of these tests and of the fracture surface of the samples showed that there was no amelioration of the fiber/matrix adhesion. It was found that predicted tensile strengths using the rule of mixture were very close to the experimental values obtained in this work. Finally the properties of an hybrid glass fiber/hemp fiber composite were found to be very promising
Technical Paper

The Effects of Nano-clay on Extrusion Microcellular Foaming of Nylon

2005-04-11
2005-01-1670
This paper demonstrates the effects of nano-clay on the microcellular foam processing of nylon. First, Nylon 6 nanocomposites with 1 wt% clay were prepared by a twin screw extruder. The nanocomposite structures were characterized by XRD and TEM. Nylon and its nanocomposites were foamed in extrusion using CO2. The cell morphologies of nylon and its nanocomposite foams were investigated. It appeared that the nano-clay not only enhanced cell nucleation, but also suppressed cell deterioration in the microcellular foaming of nylon.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenated Additives on Soot Precursor Formation in a Counterflow Diffusion Flame

1999-10-25
1999-01-3589
A counter–flow propane/air diffusion flame (ϕ= 1.79) is used for a fundamental analysis of the effects of oxygenated additives on soot precursor formation. Experiments are conducted at atmospheric pressure using Gas Chromatography for gas sample analysis. The oxygenated additives dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol are added to the fuel keeping the total volumetric fuel flow rate constant. Results show 10 vol% DMC significantly reduces acetylene, benzene, and other flame pyrolysis products. Ethanol (10 vol%) shows, instead, more modest reductions. Peak acetylene and benzene levels decrease as the additive dosage increases for both DMC and ethanol. The additive's effect on the adiabatic flame temperature and the fuel stream carbon content does not correlate significantly with acetylene levels. However, there does appear to be a linear relationship between acetylene concentrations and both the additive's oxygen and C–C bond content.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous In-Cylinder Hydrocarbon Concentration Measurement during the Post-Flame Period in an SI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3577
Crevices in the combustion chamber are the main source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark ignition (SI) engines fuelled by natural gas (NG). Instantaneous in-cylinder and engine exhaust port HC concentrations were measured simultaneously using a Cambustion HFR400 fast response flame ionization detector (FRFID) concentrated on the post-flame period. The raw data was reconstructed to account for variation in the FFRID sample transit time and time constant due to fluctuating in-cylinder pressure. HC concentration development during the post-flame period is discussed. Comparison is made of the post-flame in-cylinder and exhaust port HC concentrations under different engine operating conditions, which gives a better understanding of the mechanism by which HC emissions form from crevices in SI engines.
Technical Paper

Bluff-Body Stabilized Glow Plug Ignition of a Methanol-Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

1993-03-01
930935
Methanol, in common with other alternative fuels including natural gas and LPG, has autoignition characteristics which are poorly suited for use in compression ignition engines. Some sort of ignition assist has proven to be necessary. Considerable work has been carried out with hot surface (glow plug) ignition. The geometric relationship between the fuel injection nozzle and the glow plug is critical to achieving high efficiency and low emissions. Moreover, it is difficult to establish a single geometry which provides reliable ignition and stable operation over the entire range of engine speeds and loads. The work described in this paper investigated extending the range of operation of a particular glow plug/fuel injection nozzle geometry by placing the glow plug in the wake of a bluff body. Bluff-body flame stabilization is a well-known technique in continuous combustors. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder CFR cetane rating engine fueled with methanol.
Technical Paper

Effect of Closed Loop Fuel Control System Characteristics on Emissions from a Natural Gas-Fueled Engine

1993-10-01
932747
Some current aftermarket natural gas closed loop carburetion systems use an integral control strategy to maintain a fuel-air equivalence ratio centered in the peak conversion window of a three-way catalytic converter. Fuel control system performance under steady-state engine operating conditions can be characterized by the time-averaged value of the fuel-air equivalence ratio, the rich and lean excursion limits, and a skewness parameter that represents the non-symmetry of the time varying fuel-air equivalence ratio about the control value (ϕaverage). Using a representative aftermarket feedback control system, the effect of these parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural-gas fueled four-cylinder engine has been investigated. In addition, the effect of EGO sensor characteristics on control system performance has been examined.
Technical Paper

Effect of Increasing Compression Ratio in a Light-Duty Natural Gas-Fueled Engine on Efficiency and Emissions

1993-10-01
932746
As a result of CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) requirements, the trend in passenger car engine design is to smaller displacement engines of higher specific output which provide reductions in vehicle driving cycle fuel consumption without an accompanying decrease in maximum power output. Design features such as four valves per cylinder and compact combustion chambers give these engines significantly different combustion characteristics than traditional pushrod OHV (overhead valve) engines. In general, their combustion chambers are fast burning, enabling the use of higher compression ratios without knock on unleaded gasoline. Since fuel consumption decreases with increasing compression ratio, and since natural gas has a substantially higher octane rating than the best unleaded gasoline, it would appear to be desirable to operate with even higher compression ratios in a dedicated natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Natural Gas-Fueled 16 Valve DOHC Four-Cylinder Engine

1993-03-01
930380
The increasing use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel has generated considerable research activity to characterize the performance and emissions of engines utilizing this fuel. However, virtually all of the results reported have been for pushrod OHV spark ignition engines or SI conversions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Because of the pressure to improve fuel economy imposed by CAFE requirements, passenger cars are increasingly tending toward high specific output, small displacement engines. These engines employ such features as four valves per cylinder and centrally located spark plugs which give them a different dependence on operating variables than traditional pushrod OHV engines. In this study, experiments were carried out with a two-liter four-cylinder Nissan SR20DE engine representative of modern design practice. The engine was operated on gasoline and natural gas at six different loads and three different speeds. Some tests were also done with isooctane.
Technical Paper

Validation Tests for a Fast Response Flame Ionisation Detector for In-Cylinder Sampling Near the Spark Plug

1996-05-01
961201
The air/fuel ratio (AFR) is a key contributor to both the performance and emissions of an automotive engine. Its variation between cylinders - and between engine cycles - is of particular importance, especially during throttle transients. This paper explores the use of a fast flame ionisation detector (FFID) to quantify these rapid changes of in-cylinder composition in the vicinity of the spark gap. While this instrument actually measures fuel concentration, its results can be indicative of the AFR behaviour. Others have used the FFID for this purpose, but the planned test conditions placed special demands on the instrument. These made it prudent to explore the limits of its operating envelope and to validate the experimental technique. For in-cylinder sampling, the instrument must always be insensitive to the large pressure changes over the engine cycle. With the wide range of engine loads of interest here, this constraint becomes even more crucial.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Natural Gas Fueling Strategies During Throttle Transients

1996-10-01
961985
Throttle tip-in and tip-out tests on a 2.0 litre passenger car engine were performed using four different natural gas fuelling systems an air-valve or variable restriction type mixer, a venturi type mixer, central fuel injection, and port fuel injection. The in-cylinder fuel-air equivalence ratio, ϕ, was measured using a fast response flame ionization detector sampling about 7 mm from the spark plug gap. The data reveal characteristics of each fuel system's in-cylinder fuel-air ratio response and torque response.
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