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Technical Paper

The StressWaveTM Fatigue Life Enhancement Process

A new, patented process for improving the fatigue lives of holes in metal structures has been developed. The process, known as StressWaveTM, produces residual compressive stresses and fatigue performance comparable to, or better than, those produced by legacy cold working methods and is designed primarily for automated manufacturing, fastening and assembly environments. Eliminating the need for close-tolerance starting holes, consumable sleeves, liquid lubricant cleanup and off-line processing increases speed of operation. These process benefits and associated cost savings satisfy many aspects of lean and continuous improvement program initiatives.
Technical Paper

AutoDSS: A System Level KBE Tool for Vehicle Product Definition

A key to shortening the design cycle is to shorten the initial or conceptual design phase. An enabling technology towards this goal is an architecture called the Design Support System (DSS), which is based on the virtual prototype concept. The DSS combines knowledge with hardware and software into a system that is a model for the design process. It produces a virtual prototype of the design and maintains an intelligent design document, which is automatically updated during the design process. A design domain dependent version for automotive design, known as “Automobile Design Support System” (AutoDSS) was developed in the CADTECH Research Lab at the University of Washington.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Low Emission Liquid Nitrogen Automobile

Means to extend the range of cryogen (liquid nitrogen or liquid air) powered automobiles via burning a small amount of fossil fuel (gasoline or liquid methane) have been investigated. By utilizing both an ambient air-heat exchanger to vaporize the cryogen and a fossil fuel-fired superheater to elevate the temperature of the gaseous product, the range of the vehicle can be three times that of an ambient-heated propulsion system while not exceeding current ultra-low emission standards. Internal and external combustion power cycles using either liquid air or nitrogen as the working fluid were found to be more fuel efficient than an internal combustion engine operating on the standard Otto cycle. The fuel-cryogen operating expense for the proposed hybrid propulsion systems was found to be higher than that of the conventional automobile; however, the performance calculations were very conservative.
Technical Paper

Peening with High Pressure Waterjets

An experimental study of waterjet peening on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was conducted to investigate the effects of waterjet conditions. Erosion surface features caused by high velocity jet impingement were evaluated as functions of standoff distance, jet pressure, and jet velocity. Surface characteristics were evaluated in terms of subsurface work hardening, surface finish and a degree of surface residual stresses. Results show that waterjet peening induces the same level of plastic deformation at the surface layer as shot peening.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Geometric Field of View and Tunnel Design for Perspective Flight-Path Displays

Previous studies have shown that use of flight-path displays may lead to increased situational awareness during final approach and landing. However, there are a number of research issues which remain to be investigated concerning the optimum design of a perspective flight-path display. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study which investigated the relationship between the geometric field of view, number of tunnels in the display, and flight-path complexity on the subject's ability to fly a computer-simulated aircraft during final approach. Implications of the results for the design of perspective flight-path displays are discussed.
Technical Paper

Perceptual Biases in Spatial Judgements as a Function of Eyepoint Elevation Angle and Geometric Field of View

This study investigated perceptual biases in spatial judgments as a function of the computer graphics eyepoint elevation, monoscopic or stereoscopic display, and target cube location. The display for this experiments consisted of two computer-generated cubes located above a grid plane with drop lines to the display surface. The experiment task consisted of judging azimuth and elevation angles between the target and reference cubes. The results indicated that azimuth errors varied with eyepoint elevation and were maximized at the - 15 degree eyepoint, elevation errors were worse using the 75 degree eyepoint, and binocular disparity did not aid judgments of azimuth and elevation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vibration on the Shipment of Palletized Products

Today's competitive food and produce markets require better understanding of the design of packaged, palletized products in order to minimize product damage during shipping, maintain quality, control costs, and address promotional and environmental concerns. To further define important design parameters, the effects of shipment vibration on palletized products were measured. The premise of this study was that the natural frequencies of the palletized product should be different from those of the vehicle in order to decrease resonant behavior that may lead to packaging failure. The study was conducted in two stages. First, the natural frequencies of the product itself were examined, then the natural frequencies of fully loaded truck trailers were investigated. A description of analytical and experimental methods for evaluating packaging design and suggestions for ways to avoid resonant excitation are presented.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency Energy Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles

This investigation of the use of cryogens as energy storage media for zero emission vehicles has found that using liquid nitrogen to liquefy the working fluids of one or more closed Rankine power cycles can be an effective means for increasing motive power. System configurations are presented which can realize over 50% of the availability of liquid nitrogen without relying on isothermal expanders. A zero emission vehicle utilizing such a propulsion system would have an energy storage reservoir that can be refilled in a matter of minutes and a range comparable to that of a conventional automobile.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Whole Body Vibration Exposures across Three Truck Seats

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Advanced Regenerative Braking Strategies in a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Regenerative braking is an important factor in improving hybrid electric vehicle efficiency. This paper proposes a new regenerative braking strategy that activates preemptively during a distracted driving scenario, before service brakes are utilized. The strategy uses onboard advanced driver assistance systems, such as forward facing radar, to detect when an object is approaching fast enough to enable regenerative braking in response. The proposed strategy is simulated on a full-vehicle model of a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. A driver model is developed to mimic the behavior of a distracted driver through delayed response time to the changing speed of a lead vehicle. Multiple trials are simulated using different combinations of existing regenerative braking strategies along with the proposed strategy. Results show that a preventative regenerative braking control strategy can recuperate significant amounts of energy while also improving vehicle safety.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface.
Technical Paper

Automatic Wildfire Detection and Simulation using Optical Information from Unmanned Aerial Systems

In many parts of the world, uncontrolled fires in sparsely populated areas are a major concern as they can quickly grow into large and destructive conflagrations in short time spans. Detecting these fires has traditionally been a job for trained humans on the ground, or in the air. In many cases, these manned solutions are simply not able to survey the amount of area necessary to maintain sufficient vigilance and coverage. This paper investigates the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for automated wildfire detection. The proposed system uses low-cost, consumer-grade electronics and sensors combined with various airframes to create a system suitable for automatic detection of wildfires. The system employs automatic image processing techniques to analyze captured images and autonomously detect fire-related features such as fire lines, burnt regions, and flammable material.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Maximizing Grid Electricity Usage in the Component Selection and Design of a Midsize PHEV

The University of Washington EcoCAR2 team (UWEC2) is currently in the process of building a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) for the EcoCAR2 Challenge. This competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. In order to be competitive in EcoCAR2, grid electricity is relied on heavily and the use of the Utility Factor method presented in SAE J2841 - Utility Factor Definitions must be used to compare emissions and consumption results with traditional vehicle results. Powertrain simulation in Autonomie was performed to explore many different hybrid architectures. The simulation results were normalized using the Utility Factor method to reach final architecture and component decisions.
Journal Article

Design Tradeoffs: The Social Costs of Vehicle Fire Protection

Rational design for fire safety necessarily includes consideration of risk tradeoffs that tend to reduce one risk but may increase another. Traditional engineering design criteria can be supplemented with important factors that rely on expertise from other disciplines. Engineering analysis may be able to address reduction in fire risk due to the introduction of new technology, but may not address the social costs associated with this new technology. For example, the resultant increase in vehicle cost may prevent some people from purchasing a vehicle (impacting individuals' lives), may reduce the number of vehicles sold (impacting manufacturers), and may reduce taxes collected (impacting the government). This must be weighed against decreased risk of property damage, injury, and fatality due to fire. In this paper, the methods of benefit-cost analysis from economics were applied to make this evaluation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Parallel through the Road Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The University of Washington Advanced Vehicle Works team is currently in the process of designing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) for the EcoCAR2 Challenge. This competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The architecture chosen by the team to address these goals is a Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) PHEV which provides all electric operation to displace petroleum usage, four wheel drive mode to improve utility performance for consumers, and effective charge-sustaining operation. The PTTR architecture is the lowest cost architecture to provide all of these benefits, and it does so without compromising safety performance of the platform.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Structuring a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Control System Simulink Model for Simpler Version Control with Multiple Software Developers

This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Integration and Controls Development Process for a Parallel Through the Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The University of Washington Advanced Vehicle Works team has spent the last two years designing and integrating a Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) PHEV drive system into a stock Chevy Malibu as part of the EcoCAR 2 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition. This paper presents the integration efforts performed throughout year 2 in an effort to produce a 65% “buyoff ready” prototype vehicle. EcoCAR2 challenges 16 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The architecture chosen by the team to address these goals is a PTTR PHEV which provides all-electric operation to displace petroleum usage, four wheel drive mode to improve utility performance for consumers, and an efficient charge-sustaining mode using 20% biodiesel (B20). The PTTR architecture is the lowest cost architecture to provide all of these benefits, and it does so without compromising the safety or performance of the platform.
Technical Paper

Controls Development and Vehicle Refinement for a 99% Showroom Ready Parallel Through the Road Plug-In Hybrid Electric

This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements.
Technical Paper

Route Prediction from Trip Observations

This paper develops and tests algorithms for predicting the end-to-end route of a vehicle based on GPS observations of the vehicle's past trips. We show that a large portion a typical driver's trips are repeated. Our algorithms exploit this fact for prediction by matching the first part of a driver's current trip with one of the set of previously observed trips. Rather than predicting upcoming road segments, our focus is on making long term predictions of the route. We evaluate our algorithms using a large corpus of real world GPS driving data acquired from observing over 250 drivers for an average of 15.1 days per subject. Our results show how often and how accurately we can predict a driver's route as a function of the distance already driven.