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Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of the Autoignition Delay in a Diesel-Like Environment by the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0200
The autoignition delay of a turbulent methane jet in a Diesel-like environment is calculated by the conditional moment closure(CMC) model. Methane is injected into hot air in a constant volume chamber under various temperatures and pressures. Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms are implemented with turbulence-chemistry interaction treated by the first order CMC. The CMC model solves the conditional mean species mass fraction and temperature equations with the source term given in terms of the conditional mean quantities. The flow and mixing field are calculated by the transient SIMPLE algorithm with the k -ε model and the assumed beta function pdf. The CMC equations are solved by the fractional step method which sequentially treats the transport and chemical reaction terms in each time step. The predictions in quiescent homogeneous mixture are presented to evaluate the effects of turbulence in jet ignition.
Technical Paper

Application of Monte Carlo Analysis to Life Cycle Assessment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0011
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2000-03-06
2000-01-0773
Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Dent Resistance of Medium Scale Aluminum Structural Assemblies

2001-03-05
2001-01-0757
This work outlines the evaluation of static and dynamic dent resistance of medium scale structural assemblies fabricated using AA6111 and AA5754. The assemblies fabricated attempt to mimic common automotive hood designs allowing for a parametric study of the support spacing, sheet thickness and panel curvature. Closure panels of AA6111, of two thicknesses (0.8, and 0.9mm), are bonded to re-usable inner panels fabricated using AA5754 to form the structural assemblies tested. While normal practice would use the same alloy for both the inner and the outer, in the current work, AA5754 was adopted for ease of welding. Numerical simulations were performed using LS DYNA. A comparison of experimental and numerically simulated results is presented. The study attempts to establish an understanding of the relationship between structural support conditions and resulting dent depths for both static and dynamic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Air-to-fuel Ratio Modulation Experiments over a Pd/Rh Three-way Catalyst

2001-09-24
2001-01-3539
The benefits of deliberately modulating air-to-fuel ratio over a three-way catalyst are disputed. In this work, engine test cell experiments were carried out to assess the performance of a warmed-up Pd/Rh three-way catalyst. The objectives were threefold: first, to determine the best mode of operation; second, to determine if air-to-fuel ratio modulation enhances robustness to transient air-to-fuel ratio disturbances; third, to determine if the conversion efficiency can be manipulated by controlling the shape of the air-to-fuel ratio oscillation. It was observed that the highest conversion efficiency is obtained using a steady air-to-fuel ratio just rich of stoichiometric; however, this mode of operation lacks robustness with respect to transient disturbances and UEGO sensor errors. Robustness can be improved using an oscillating air-to-fuel ratio, but with a sacrifice in peak conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Denting of Paint Baked AA6111 Panels: Comparison of Finite Element Predictions and Experiments

2001-10-16
2001-01-3047
This work presents comparisons of finite element model predictions of static and dynamic denting with experimental results. Panels were stamped from 0.81, 0.93 and 1.00mm AA6111-T4 and then paint-baked to produce representative automotive outer body panels. Each type of panel was statically and dynamically dented at three locations using a 25.4mm steel ball. Static denting was accomplished with incremental loading of 22.24N loads up to a maximum of 244.48N. Dynamic denting was accomplished by dropping the steel ball from heights ranging from 200mm to 1200mm. Multi-stage finite element analysis was performed using LS-DYNA1 and ABAQUS2 to predict the entire process of forming, spring-back, denting and final spring-back of the dented panels. The predicted results show good correlation with the experiments, but also highlight the sensitivity of the predictions to formulation of the finite element problem.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Small Scale Formability Results on Large Scale Parts: Aluminum Alloy Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0823
This paper investigates the application of standard formability testing results for aluminum alloy tailor welded blanks (TWB) to full size stampings. The limit strains obtained from formability testing are compared to measured strains in a larger scale part. The measured strains in the full scale part are also compared to predictions from finite element simulation.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2001-03-05
2001-01-0824
Electromagnetic forming of aluminum alloys provides improved forming limits, minimal springback and rapid implementation. The ability to predict the minimum energy required in electromagnetic forming is essential in developing an efficient process. Understanding the development of the strain distribution over time in the blank is also highly desired. A numerical model is needed that offers insight into these areas and the electromagnetic forming process in general that cannot easily be extracted from experiments. To address these concerns, ANSYS/EMAG is used to model the time varying currents that are discharged through the coil in order to obtain the transient magnetic forces acting on the blank. The body forces caused by electromagnetic induction are then used as the boundary condition to model the high velocity deformation of the blank with LS-DYNA, an explicit dynamic finite element code.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Testing of Sheet Metals Subject to Uniaxial Tension-Compression

2001-03-05
2001-01-1321
The paper describes the fabrication and testing of thin sheet metal uniaxial fatigue specimens that have been laminated to prevent buckling. When hot or cold rolled metal thicknesses are below 5 mm, the usual fatigue specimens, having a uniform gauge length of 7.5 mm or more, buckle in the short life region (∼10000 cycles) of strain-life testing. For thinner materials, non-standard specimen designs or anti-buckling guides have been used, but each of these solutions requires additional instrumentation. The results presented in this paper show that laminating multiple sheets of material together to increase the specimen's effective thickness raises the strain level for the onset of buckling of the standard uniaxial specimen. Constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests extending into the high-strain short-life region were performed. Fatigue life data for multiple layer specimens were in good agreement with those obtained for single layer specimens.
Technical Paper

Weld Failure in Formability Testing of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0090
The present work investigates weld failure modes during formability tests of multi-gauge aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs). The limiting dome height test is used to evaluate formability of TWBs. Three gauge combinations utilizing aluminum alloy 5754 sheets are considered (2 to 1 mm, 1.6 to 1 mm and 2 to 1.6 mm). Three weld orientations have been considered: transverse, longitudinal and 45°. Interaction of several factors determines the type of failure that occurs in a TWB specimen. These factors are weld orientation, morphology and distribution of weld defects, and the magnitude of constraint imposed by the thicker sheet to the thin sheet. The last factor depends on the difference in thickness of the sheet pair and is usually expressed in terms of gauge ratio. In general TWBs show two different types of fracture: weld failure and failure of the thin aluminum sheet. Only the former will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge Design Strategy -University of Waterloo

1998-02-23
980491
The conversion design strategy, and emissions and performance results for a dedicated propane, vapour injected, 1995 Dodge Dakota truck are reported. Data is obtained from the University of Waterloo entry in the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge. A key feature of the design strategy is its focus on testing and emissions while preserving low engine speed power for drivability. Major changes to the Dakota truck included the following: installation of a custom shaped fuel tank, inclusion of a fuel temperature control module, addition of a vaporizer and a fuel delivery metering unit, installation of a custom vapour distribution manifold, addition of an equivalence ratio electronic controller, inclusion of a wide range oxygen sensor, addition of an exhaust gas recirculation cooler and installation of thermal insulation on the exhaust system. A competition provided natural gas catalyst was used.
Technical Paper

Overview Introduction of Vehicle Dynamics with Novel Planar Suspension Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0957
In a conventional vehicle, the longitudinal shocks caused by the road obstacles cannot be effectively absorbed due to the fact that the longitudinal connections between the chassis and wheels are typically very stiff compared with the vertical strut where the regular spring is mounted. To overcome this limitation, a concept design of a planar suspension system (PSS) is proposed. The rather stiff longitudinal linkages are replaced by a spring-damping strut in a PSS so that the vibration along any direction in the wheel plane can be effectively isolated. For a vehicle with such suspension systems, the wheels can move forth and back with respect to the chassis. The wheelbase and load distribution at the front and rear wheels can change as a consequence of the implementation of the PSS on a vehicle. The planar system can induce changes in the vehicle dynamic behavior. This paper presents the overview introduction of a dynamic study of a vehicle with such suspension systems.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bead Surface Preparation on Friction in the Drawbead Test

1991-02-01
910511
The effects of bead surface roughness on friction, die pickup, and sheet surface damage in the drawbead test were investigated. Beads of HRC 58 hardness were prepared from centerless-ground rod by circumferential honing to 0.05 μm roughness, followed by finishing with 100, 400, or 600 grit SiC paper in the axial direction. Paraffinic base oils with viscosities of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s were used neat and in conjunction with stearic acid. The effects of bead roughness depended on the nature of metal transfer, especially its distribution and firmness of attachment. The presence of a boundary additive increased, decreased, or had no effect on friction depending on the particular coating and bead finish.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Method for Damage Detection in Hydraulic Components

1995-09-01
952089
The detection and tracking of the damage process between surfaces in contact, together with an estimation of the remaining service life, are significant contributions to the efficient operation of hydraulic components. The commonly used approach of analyzing vibration signals in terms of spectral distributions, while being very effective, has some shortcomings. For example, the results are sensitive to both load and speed variations. The approach presented in this paper is based on the fact that the asperity distribution of surfaces in good condition have a near normal probability distribution. Deviation from this can be tracked using statistical moments. The Beta probability distribution provides a number of shapes, including normal, under the control of two positive numbers, α and β. Unlike the normal distribution, which indicates defects by kurtosis values higher than 3.0, the Beta distribution provides more flexibility.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Natural Gas Injection: Injector/Cylinder Boundary Conditions

1994-03-01
940329
Direct injected natural gas diesel engines are currently being developed. Numerical analyses results are presented for 20.0 MPa (≈ 3000 psia; 200 atm), 444 K, natural gas injection into 4.0 MPa cylinder air where the ambient turbulence field is representative of diesel engines. Two very important non-intuitive, observations are made. First, the seemingly reasonable spatially uniform velocity profile currently used at the injector exit is not appropriate, rather a double-hump profile is correct. Second, a spatially uniform, injector exit, temperature profile results in local temperature overestimates as large as 300 K. Considering the strong role of temperature on chemical kinetics, this second observation may have profound implications on the validity of conclusions reached using uniform exit profiles.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Variable Amplitude Strain Histories

1993-03-01
930400
This paper presents a model for fatigue life prediction for metals subjected to variable amplitude service loading. The model, which is based on crack growth and crack closure mechanisms for short fatigue cracks, incorporates a strain-based damage parameter, EΔε*, determined from the effective or open part of a strain cycle along with a fatigue resistance curve that takes the form: EΔε* = A(Nf)b, where E is the elastic modulus, Nf is the number of cycles to failure, and A and b are experimentally determined material constants. The fatigue resistance curve is generated for a SAE 1045 steel and the model is used successfully to predict the fatigue lives of smooth axial specimens subjected to two variable amplitude strain histories. The model is also used to predict the magnitude of non-damaging cycles that can be omitted from the strain histories to accelerate fatigue testing.
Technical Paper

Report of NADDRG Friction Committee on Reproducibility of Friction Tests within and Between Laboratories

1993-03-01
930811
The present paper offers a status report on round-robin tests conducted with the participation of ten laboratories, with drawbead simulation (DBS) as the test method. The results showed that, in most laboratories, the coefficient of friction (COF) derived from the test is repeatable within an acceptable range of ±0.01. Repeatability between laboratories was less satisfactory. Five laboratories reported results within the desirable band, while some laboratories found consistently higher values. In one instance this could be traced to incomplete transfer of clamp forces to the load cell, in other instances inaccurate test geometry is suspected. Therefore, numerical values of COF from different laboratories are not necessarily comparable. Irrespective of these inter-laboratory variations, the relative ranking of lubricants was not affected, and data generated within one laboratory can be used for relative evaluations and for a resolution of production problems.
Technical Paper

Tribological Factors Affecting the LDH Test

1992-02-01
920434
The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation of a Nodular Cast Iron Component

1992-02-01
920669
A ferritic-pearlitic nodular iron automobile suspension knuckle was fatigue tested in the laboratory using a constant amplitude load level that simulated a severe service condition. It was found that cracks always initiated from surface casting defects and that the fatigue life could be extended significantly by machining away the as-cast surface in the fatigue sensitive locations. Both local strain and fracture mechanics approaches were used successfully to predict the fatigue life of the component.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Nitrogen on the Mechanical Properties of an SAE 1045 Steel

1992-02-01
920667
A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
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