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Journal Article

A Methodology for Investigating and Modelling Laser Clad Bead Geometry and Process Parameter Relationships

Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
Journal Article

Ferritic Nitrocarburizing of SAE 1010 Plain Carbon Steel Parts

Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Axial Cutting Deformation of AA6061-T6 Round Tubes Utilizing Eulerian and Mesh Free Finite Element Formulations

Experimental and numerical studies have been completed on the deformation behaviour of round AA6061-T6 aluminum extrusions during an axial cutting deformation mode employing both curved and straight deflectors to control the bending deformation of petalled side walls. Round extrusions of length 200 mm with a nominal wall thickness of 3.175 mm and an external diameter of 50.8 mm were considered. A heat treated 4140 steel alloy cutter and deflectors, both straight and curved, were designed and manufactured for the testing considered. The four blades of the cutter had an approximate average thickness of 1.00 mm which were designed to penetrate through the round AA6061-T6 extrusions. Experimental observations illustrated high crush force efficiencies of 0.82 for the extrusions which experienced the cutting deformation mode with the deflectors. Total energy absorption during the cutting process was approximately 5.48 kJ.
Journal Article

Plasmonic in Metallic Nanostructures – Fabrication, Characterization and Applications in Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy

We are witnessing a rapid and ongoing expansion of nanoscience, driven by potential applications in advanced materials and nanotechnology. There is a race to develop techniques that may allow controlling the size, shape of nanostructures that can allow the tuning of their optical and electronic properties. Plasmonics is a field that encompasses and profits from the optical enhancement in nanostructures that support plasmon excitations. One of these new techniques is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), commonly used for nanostructure characterization. In the present report, we present a theoretical model for plasmon excitation and electric field enhancement that help to provide an explanation for the special features observed in experimental SERS. Two sets of experimental results are discussed illustrating the make out of the signature of the plasmonics producing the optical enhancement.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Method to Study the Sensitivity of Transmission Laser Welding of Plastic Parts to Interfacial Gaps

Hollow polymer-based automotive components cannot, in general, be directly injection molded because they cannot be ejected from the mold. The common practice is to injection mold two or more parts, and then join these together with a welding process. Of the many joining process available, laser welding has an advantage in geometric design freedom. The laser weld joints are also generally stronger than those of vibration welds because the weld joints are located in the walls rather than on external flanges. Eliminating the external flanges also makes the part more compact. In transmission laser welding processes, the laser beam passes through a transparent part to its interface with an opaque part. The beam energy is absorbed near the interface in the opaque part, and heat flows back across to the transparent half to make the weld pool. So successful laser welds are possible only when there is a continuous interfacial fit between the parts.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding of Elastomers to Polypropylene

The effects of varying laser-welding parameters were studied for the welding of the thermoplastic elastomer EPDM to glass filled polypropylene. Through-thickness scanning transmission welding (contour welding) was carried out with a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm using various power levels up to 150W and line speeds up to 2500 mm/minute. The observable weld attributes: weld strengths, weld widths, and failure modes, have been tabulated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Separation and Liberation Factors in Designing for Automotive Materials Recovery

One critical aspect of design-for-environment efforts is to increase the effectiveness of materials recovery from end-of-life vehicles. Recovery itself depends on both the amount of material recovered and the purity of the material stream. Shredding, and screening are often used to separate recyclable materials from wastes. However, with the increasing amount of composite components, particularly those made from plastics, separation processes may be inadequate. Instead, liberation processes, which reduce the physical joints between materials, are also important. In this research, samples of ABS and PVC plastics were assembled into various configurations, ground up, and then characterized by their size distributions and degrees of liberation. Two primary fastening methods - adhesive and riveting - were used to simulate how plastic components would be actually attached together.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting the Tensile Strength of Linear Vibration Welds of Dissimilar Nylons

Three different pairs of high melting temperature and low melting temperature nylons have been welded together using three different design of experiment welding process parameter matrices. An unorthodox analysis of these has revealed that there is a general increase in strength as the total welding sliding distance of the two surfaces increases. This is not surprising. The analysis also reveals that, for a given sliding distance, the vibration amplitude should be large, which shortens the welding time. This strategy produces shorter cycle times and stronger welds, according to the data obtained in these test sets.
Technical Paper

Experimental Observations on the Mechanical Response of AZ31B Magnesium and AA6061-T6 Aluminum Extrusions Subjected to Compression and Cutting Modes of Deformation

Cylindrical extrusions of magnesium AZ31B were subjected to quasi-static axial compression and cutting modes of deformation to study this alloy’s effectiveness as an energy absorber. For comparison, the tests were repeated using extrusions of AA6061-T6 aluminum of the same geometry. For the axial compression tests, three different end geometries were considered, namely (1) a flat cutoff, (2) a 45 degree chamfer, and (3) a square circumferential notch. AZ31B extrusions with the 45 degree chamfer produced the most repeatable and stable deformation of a progressive fracturing nature, referred to as sharding, with an average SEA of 40 kJ/kg and an average CFE of 45 %, which are nearly equal to the performance of the AA6061-T6. Both the AZ31B specimens with the flat cutoff and the circumferential notch conditions were more prone to tilt mid-test, and lead to an unstable helical fracture, which significantly reduced the SEA.
Technical Paper

General and Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Aluminized Ultra-High Strength Steel (UHSS) and Magnesium Alloy AZ35 Altered by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coating Processes

Ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) and magnesium (Mg) alloy have found their importance in response to automotive strategy of light weighting. UHSS to be metal-formed by hot stamping usually has a hot-dipped aluminum-silicon alloy layer on its surface to prevent the high temperature scaling during the hot stamping and corrosion during applications. In this paper, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce ceramic oxide coatings on aluminized UHSS and Mg with intention to further improve their corrosion resistances. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to evaluate general corrosion properties of the individual alloys. Galvanic corrosion of the aluminized UHSS and magnesium alloy coupling with and without PEO coatings was studied by a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) test. It was found that the heating-cooling process simulating the hot stamping would reduce anti-corrosion properties of aluminized UHSS due to the outward iron diffusion.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Journal Article

The Effect of Backing Profile on Cutting Blade Wear during High-Volume Production of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is an attractive material for automotive lightweighting applications, but several issues present themselves when adapting a process developed for glass fiber composites to instead use carbon fibers. SMC is a discontinuous fiber material, so individual carbon fiber tows must be chopped into uniform rovings before being compounded with the resin matrix. Rotary chopping is one such method for producing rovings, but high wear rates are seen when cutting carbon fibers. Experiments were performed to investigate the wear progression of cutting blades during rotary carbon fiber chopping. A small rotary chopper with a polyurethane (PU) backing and thin, hardened steel blades was used to perform extended wear tests (120,000 chops, or until failure to reliably chop tows) to simulate the lifespan of blades during composite material production.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Mechanical Performance of AA6061-T6 Extrusions Subjected to Axial Crushing and Axial Cutting

Conventional axially loaded energy absorbers dissipate kinetic energy through progressive folding. The significant fluctuations in load and high risk of transition to global bending are drawbacks that engineers have attempted to mitigate through several methods. A novel energy dissipation mechanism, referred to as axial cutting, utilizes thin-walled extrusions and a strengthened cutting tool to absorb energy in an axial impact. Compared to progressive folding, this can be achieved with minimal fluctuations in load during the deformation process. Based upon estimates from finite element models, a series of test cases were postulated where, for 8 and 10-bladed cutting scenarios, greater total energy absorption could be achieved through axial cutting than with progressive folding of geometrically similar extrusions. The specimens were AA6061 extrusions having T6 temper conditions that possessed 63.5 mm outer diameters and 1.5 mm wall thicknesses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Axial Cutting of AA6061 Extrusions under a Tension Deformation Mode

A plethora of applications in the transportation industry for both vehicular and roadside safety hardware, especially seatbelts, harnesses and restraints, rely on tensile loading to dissipate energy and minimize injury. There are disadvantages to the current state-of-the-art for these tensile energy absorbers, including erratic force-displacement responses and low tensile force efficiencies (TFE). Axial cutting was extensively demonstrated by researchers at the University of Windsor to maintain a stable reaction force, although exclusively under compressive loading. A novel apparatus was investigated in this study which utilized axial cutting under a tensile loading condition to absorb energy. A parametric scope was chosen to include circular AA6061 extrusions in both T4 and T6 temper conditions with an outer diameter of 63.5 mm and wall thickness of 3.18 mm.