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Technical Paper

Identification of Damage Parameters Using Virtual Fields Method and Finite Element Model Updating

2007-04-16
2007-01-0999
Whole field displacement/strain measurement of automotive components can be done efficiently by digital image correlation based technique. Inverse problems with this kind of input data, such as the identification of damage parameters/effective modulus in different part of a component, can be pursued by either virtual fields method or finite element model updating. In this paper, the two methods are applied to the identification of a tension plate with a circular hole, and different aspects of the two methods are discussed. It is found that the success of virtual fields method relies on the choice of a set of optimal virtual displacement fields; finite element model updating, on the other hand, can be applied to any geometry and any load condition, and can also be applied to problems where only limited number of measurements are available. However, its performance relies on the choice of optimization algorithms.
Technical Paper

Development of a Plastic Manifold Noise Syntheses Technique

2001-03-05
2001-01-1144
The effects of engine noise in plastic manifolds has been a subject of study in the automotive Industry. Several SAE papers have been published on the subject. Most testing described requires access to engine dynamometers and other elaborate equipment. As part of a general study of plastic intake manifold noise characteristics, this study was undertaken to develop a synthesis bench for enabling low cost noise testing of plastic induction systems including plastic manifolds. Computer simulation of engine intake noise was used as part of a correlation between the plastic manifold synthesis bench and actual engine measurements. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis provided analogous results between the predicted theoretical and two measured signals with a fundamental frequency at approximately 80 Hz. Qualitative and statistical comparisons of the time domain signals also proved equally favourable. Recommendations are included for further development of this approach.
Technical Paper

Heat Release Based Adaptive Control to Improve Low Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0771
Heat-release and cylinder pressure based adaptive fuel-injection control tests were performed on a modern common-rail diesel engine to improve the engine operation in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) region. A single shot injection strategy with heavy amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to modulate the in-cylinder charge conditions to achieve the low-temperature combustion. Adaptive fuel-injection techniques were used to anchor the cylinder pressure characteristics in the desired crank angle window and thereby stabilize the engine operation. The response of the adaptive control to boost, fueling, and engine speed variations was also tested. A combination of adaptive fuel-injection and automatic boost/back-pressure controls had helped to make the transient emissions comparable to the steady-state LTC emissions.
Technical Paper

Noise Cancellation Technique for Automotive Intake Noise Using A Manifold Bridging Technique

2005-05-16
2005-01-2368
Due to considerable efforts of automobile manufacturers to attenuate various noise sources within the passenger compartment, other sources, including induction noise have become more noticeable. The present study investigates the feasibility of using a non-conventional noise cancellation technique to improve the acoustic performance of an automotive induction system by using acoustic energy derived from the exhaust manifold as the dynamic noise source to cancel intake noise. The validity of this technique was first investigated analytically using a computational engine simulation software program. Using these results, a physical model of the bridge was installed and tested on a motored engine. The realized attenuation of the intake noise was evaluated using conventional FFT analysis techniques as well as psychoacoustic metrics including loudness, sharpness, roughness and fluctuation strength.
Technical Paper

Improving Virtual Durability Simulation with Neural Network Modeling Techniques

2005-04-11
2005-01-0483
Neural networks are flexible modeling tools that can be used in conjunction with multi-body dynamics models to better predict nonlinear behaviour of components. This paper focuses on a process that incorporates a neural network model of a nonlinear damping force into a single degree of freedom mass-spring-damper model. Software tools and their interaction are specified. The verification of this process is the focal point of this paper and is a necessary step before further correlation studies can be performed on more complex component representations.
Technical Paper

Real-time Heat Release Analysis for Model-based Control of Diesel Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1000
A number of cylinder-pressure derived parameters including the crank angles of maximum pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and 50% heat released are considered as among the desired feedback for cycle-by-cycle adaptive control of diesel combustion. For real-time computation of these parameters, the heat release analyses based on the first law of thermodynamics are used. This paper intends to identify the operating regions where the simplified heat release approach provides sufficient accuracy for control applications and also highlights those regions where its use can lead to significant errors in the calculated parameters. The effects of the cylinder charge-to-wall heat transfer and the temperature dependence of the specific heat ratio on the model performance are reported. A new computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the crank angle of 50% heat released with adequate accuracy is proposed for computation in real-time.
Technical Paper

Active Four Wheel Brake Proportioning for Improved Performance and Safety

2008-04-14
2008-01-1224
A vehicle undergoing longitudinal or lateral accelerations experiences load transfer, dynamically changing the normal load carried by each tire. Conventional braking systems are designed only to work adequately over a large range of conditions, but often ignore the dynamic state of the tire's normal load. Fortunately, new developments in braking system hardware give designers more control over the application of braking pressures. By identifying the tires that carry increased normal load, and biasing the braking system toward those tires, total braking force can be increased. The purpose of this research is to investigate advantages of open-loop load transfer based active brake pressure distribution. By estimating the tractive ability of the tires as a function of measurable vehicle conditions, brake pressure can be applied in proportions appropriate for the current dynamic state of the vehicle, referred to as Active Brake Proportioning (ABP).
Technical Paper

The University of Windsor - St. Clair College E85 Silverado

2001-03-05
2001-01-0680
The fuel called E-85 can be burned effectively in engines similar to the engines currently mass-produced for use with gasoline. Since the ethanol component of this fuel is produced from crops such as corn and sugar cane, the fuel is almost fully renewable. The different physical and chemical properties of E-85, however, do require certain modifications to the common gasoline engine. The Windsor - St. Clair team has focused their attention to modifications that will improve fuel efficiency and reduce tailpipe emissions. Other modifications were also performed to ensure that the vehicle would still operate with the same power and driveability as its gasoline counterpart.
Technical Paper

Prompt Heat Release Analysis to Improve Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1883
Diesel engines operating in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode generally tend to produce very low levels of NOx and soot. However, the implementation of LTC is challenged by the higher cycle-to-cycle variation with heavy EGR operation and the narrower operating corridors. The robustness and efficiency of LTC operation in diesel engines can be enhanced with improvements in the promptness and accuracy of combustion control. A set of field programmable gate array (FPGA) modules were coded and interlaced to suffice on-the-fly combustion event modulations. The cylinder pressure traces were analyzed to update the heat release rate concurrently as the combustion process proceeds prior to completing an engine cycle. Engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that such prompt heat release analysis was effective to optimize the LTC and the split combustion events for better fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Wear and Galvanic Corrosion Protection of Mg alloy via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process for Mg Engine Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-0790
Sliding wear of magnesium (Mg) engine cylinder bore surfaces and corrosion of Mg engine coolant channels are the two unsolved critical issues that automakers have to deal with in development of magnesium-intensive engines. In this paper, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce oxide coatings on AJ62 Mg alloy to provide wear and corrosion protection. In order to optimize the PEO process, orthogonal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of PEO process parameters on the wear properties of PEO coatings. The PEO coatings showed a much better wear resistance, as well as a smaller friction coefficient, than the AJ62 substrate. The galvanic corrosion property of AJ62 Mg coupled with stainless steel and aluminum (Al) was investigated via immersion corrosion test in an engine coolant. Applying PEO coating on Mg can effectively prevent the galvanic corrosion attack to Mg.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements with Optical Fiber and Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

2002-03-04
2002-01-0745
Highly accurate cylinder pressure data can be acquired using a wall-mounted and water-cooled quartz piezoelectric transducer. However, this type of transducer does not satisfy the cost and packaging constraints when used in a production engine application. A potential solution to these issues that has been the interest of many is the much smaller and less expensive optical fiber based pressure transducer. This research compares Kistler piezoelectric transducers to Optrand optical fiber transducers. The influence of the transducer type and mounting arrangement on the quality of cylinder pressure data was examined. The transducers were evaluated on a DaimlerChrysler 4.7L V-8 Compressed Natural Gas fuelled test engine. The analysis method is comprised of examining measured individual cycle and ensemble-averaged cylinder pressure records to assess the quality of the data and its usefulness for engine management.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Discharge Energy Scheduling on Flame Kernel Formation under Quiescent and Flow Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0727
The breakdown phase is considered to have the highest electric-thermal energy transfer efficiency among all the discharge modes in a conventional spark ignition process. In this study, an external capacitor is connected in parallel with the spark plug in order to enhance the discharge energy and power during the breakdown phase. A constant volume combustion chamber is used to investigate the high power spark discharge under different background pressures and with varied flow velocities. Results show that the added parallel capacitance is effective in redistributing the spark energy. With the increase in parallel capacitance, the breakdown power and energy increase, though at the cost of reduced glow phase energy. The breakdown energy also increases with the increased background pressure. Then combustion tests are carried out to study the effects of the breakdown power enhanced spark on flame propagation under both quiescent and flow conditions via optical diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Dual Coil Ignition Strategy in a Split-Cycle Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0726
A Split-Cycle engine fueled with methane has been constructed and operated at the University of Windsor. A split-cycle engine consists of two interconnected cylinders working together to preform the four engine strokes. Cylinder 1 preforms intake and compression strokes while cylinder 2 is where combustion, expansion and exhaust occur. The connecting high pressure crossover passage is where methane is injected, resulting in a well pre-mixed air-fuel mixture. Transfer occurs to the combustion cylinder near TDC, resulting in intense small scale turbulence that leads to short combustion durations under 30° CA. Short durations are achieved despite low engine speeds of 850-1200 rpm, late combustion phasing and part loads. Of note is the lean limit of operation of the engine at the equivalence ratio Φ = 0.85, which is high compared to other natural gas engines which have limits around Φ = 0.6.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Near-Spark-Plug Flow Field and Its Effect on Spark Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-0718
In the recent decades, the emission and fuel efficiency regulations put forth by the emission regulation agencies have become increasingly stringent and this trend is expected to continue in future. The advanced spark ignition (SI) engines can operate under lean conditions to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Under such lean conditions, the ignition and complete combustion of the charge mixture is a challenge because of the reduced charge reactivity. Enhancement of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence to increase the flame velocity, and consequently reduce the combustion duration is one possible way to improve lean combustion. The role of air motion in better air-fuel mixing and increasing the flame velocity, by enhancing turbulence has been researched extensively. However, during the ignition process, the charge motion can influence the initial spark discharge, resulting flame kernel formation, and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of the Discharge Current and Spark Energy for the Multi-Coil Offset Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0725
To overcome the unfavorable operation conditions caused by lean/diluted charges in modern Spark Ignited (SI) engines, various advanced ignition systems have been proposed in the past. Among them, the dual-coil and multi-coil Transistor Coil Ignition (TCI) systems with offset discharge strategy caused significant attention in literature because they can generate a continuous spark with high spark energy being delivered into the cylinder. Comparing with the dual-coil system, a multi-coil system is capable to apply more flexible control strategies and generate a higher discharge current. However, the spark energy and transfer efficiency of the multi-coil system are still worthy to investigate as they are important performance indicators for a TCI system. In this paper, the discharge characteristics of the dual-coil and triple-coil strategies under both quiescent and flow conditions were studied firstly by experimental methods.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model of Spark-Ignited Turbulent Flame Growth

2000-03-06
2000-01-0201
A semi-empirical turbulent flame growth model has been developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experiments in a 125-mm cubical combustion chamber. It covers the main flame growth period from spark kernel formation until flame wall contact, including the effects of laminar flame speed, root mean square turbulence intensity, turbulent eddy size, and flame size. As expected, the combustion rate increases with increasing laminar flame speed and/or turbulence intensity. The effect of turbulent eddy scale is less obvious. For a given turbulence intensity, smaller scales produce higher instantaneous flame speed. However, turbulence of a smaller scale also decays more rapidly. Thus, for a given laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity at the time of ignition, there is an optimum turbulent eddy size which leads to the fastest combustion rate over the period considered.
Technical Paper

Study of Heat Release Shaping via Dual-Chamber Piston Bowl Design to Improve Ethanol-Diesel Combustion Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0762
In this work, an innovative piston bowl design that physically divides the combustion chamber into a central zone and a peripheral zone is employed to assist the control of the ethanol-diesel combustion process via heat release shaping. The spatial combustion zone partition divides the premixed ethanol-air mixture into two portions, and the combustion event (timing and extent) of each portion can be controlled by the temporal diesel injection scheduling. As a result, the heat release profile of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion is properly shaped to avoid excessive pressure rise rates and thus to improve the engine performance. The investigation is carried out through theoretical simulation study and empirical engine tests. Parametric simulation is first performed to evaluate the effects of heat release shaping on combustion noise and engine efficiency and to provide boundary conditions for subsequent engine tests.
Technical Paper

Load and Lubricating Oil Effects on Friction of a PEO Coating at Different Sliding Velocities

2017-03-28
2017-01-0464
Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
Technical Paper

Investigating Process Parameters and Microhardness Predictive Modeling Approaches for Single Bead 420 Stainless Steel Laser Cladding

2017-03-28
2017-01-0283
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components. There are many interlinked process parameters associated with laser cladding, which may have an impact on the resultant microhardness profile throughout the bead zone. A set of single bead laser cladding experiments were done using a 4 kW fiber laser coupled with a 6-axis robotic arm for 420 martensitic stainless steel powder. A design of experiments approach was taken to explore a wide range of process parameter settings. The goal of this research is to determine whether robust predictive models for hardness can be developed, and if there are predictive trends that can be employed to optimize the process settings for a given set of process parameters and microhardness requirements.
Journal Article

Rotary Fatigue Analysis of Forged Magnesium Road Wheels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0211
Fatigue analysis incorporating explicit finite element simulation was conducted on a forged magnesium wheel model where a rotating bend moment was applied to the hub to simulate rotary fatigue testing. Based on wheel fatigue design criteria and a developed fatigue post-processor, the safety factor of fatigue failure was calculated for each finite element. Fatigue failure was verified through experimental testing. Design modifications were proposed by increasing the spoke thickness. Further numerical and experimental testing indicated that the modified design passed the rotary fatigue test.
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