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Technical Paper

Compression and End-Gas Temperatures from Iodine Absorption Spectra

THIS paper discusses a method of measuring compression temperature by means of the absorption of light. An optical-electronic system measures the change in color of a trace of iodine gas that has been added to the intake mixture. From these measurements the temperature of the iodine and by inference, the temperature of the gases, is determined. The apparatus used is described briefly and the test results obtained in measuring compression and end-gas temperatures in a spark-ignition engine are also presented.
Technical Paper


A NEW electronic circuit arrangement added to the electro-optical pyrometer developed at the University of Wisconsin indicates instantaneously the temperature in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The electronic device, which is described in this paper, solves an equation relating true temperature to intensity and wave length of monochromatic radiation from a luminous flame. True flame temperature is charted on an oscillograph as a function of such abscissas as time or crank angle. Several circuits are reviewed which were found unsuited for use with the pyrometer but which may be useful for other applications.
Technical Paper

Behavior of High- and Low-Cetane Diesel Fuels

THIS paper is a sequel of the paper, “Photo-Electric Combustion Analysis,” presented at the 1936 Semi-Annual Meeting of the Society. The indicator described in that paper has been used to study combustion of 28 fuels and chemicals. A complete table of information of the materials used as fuels is included. The results obtained from over 1000 oscillograms show a different shape of ignition-lag curve versus injection advance angle than it is ordinarily thought to have. Even though the cetane values for these 28 fuels varied from 24 to 100, they all had nearly the same ignition lag when injected near the dead-center position. This minimum value is shown to be about 1/1000 sec. The fuels of higher-cetane value reach this minimum at an earlier injection angle than do those of low-cetane value. The paper shows how a high-cetane fuel can be just as rough as a low-cetane fuel if the injection timing is too early.
Technical Paper

Fuel Vaporization and Ignition Las in Diesel Combustion

AN analysis of phenomena occurring during the ignition delay period is presented. Vaporization of atomized fuel is shown to take place under conditions ranging between single droplet and adiabatic saturation from edge to center of the spray. Mechanisms of vaporization and combustible mixture formation are presented for both cases. Correlation of theoretical analysis with experimental data from both a combustion bomb and diesel engine is presented to establish actual conditions existing during vaporization. Estimates of physical and chemical delays for the engine and bomb are given.
Technical Paper

Physical and Chemical Ignition Delay in an Operating Diesel Engine Using the Hot-Motored Technique

THE present work uses the hot-motored technique to compare a hot, motored pressure diagram with a fired, pressure-time diagram. This technique is applied to a diesel engine to study the small pressure changes after injection and before rapid inflammation. The data resulting from these studies show a relationship between the magnitude of these pressure changes and cetane number of the fuel. Data for selected fuels are presented to show the relative magnitude of different phenomena causing ignition delay.
Technical Paper

End-Gas Temperatures, Pressures, Reaction Rates, and Knock

The infrared radiation method of compression and end-gas temperature measurement was applied to the problem of measuring gas temperatures up to the time of knock. Pressure data were taken for each run on a CFR engine with mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane under both knocking and nonknocking conditions. Main engine parameters studied were the intake pressure, intake temperature, and engine speed. The rate and extent of chemical energy release were calculated from the temperature and pressure histories using an energy balance. The computed rates of chemical energy release were correlated to a chain-type kinetic model
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Introduction of Fuel on Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

An investigation into effects of multiple fuel introduction on isfc, rate-of-pressure rise, ignition delay, and smoothness of P-T diagram was conducted. Work, including pilot and manifold injection and the Vigom process, was conducted in a prechamber, an open chamber, and a Ricardo Comet chamber, all mounted on a CFR crankcase. Results show marked smoothening of the P-T diagram, with slight loss in fuel economy, particularly in the open chamber, and decrease in ignition delay for both high and low cetane fuels, especially at lower engine speeds. Data show that the quantity of preliminary fuel required for best performance changes considerably with cetane number of the fuel and with combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Operation and Design for Minimum Exhaust Emission

The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.
Technical Paper

Droplet Vaporization Under Pressure on a Hot Surface

Life histories of droplets evaporating on a hot plate under pressure were obtained. The curves are similar to those obtained by one investigator at atmospheric pressure but are displaced to higher temperatures at higher pressures. Similarities between boiling heat transfer and the life history curves are pointed out. Also, that the liquid will most probably reach critical pressure and temperature at temperatures existing inside an engine. The effects of reaching the critical temperature on heat transfer and on vaporization and diffusion are discussed.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Vertical Acceleration and Human Comfort in a Passenger Car

This paper takes a step towards eliminating the automobile industry's dependence on “seat of the pants” ride analysis by investigating the correlation between vertical acceleration and passenger comfort. To do this, it first develops a relationship between accelerometer data and ride comfort on a controlled test surface, and then extends this relationship to actual road conditions. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, a simple, typical problem in more detailed ride analysis is briefly considered.
Technical Paper

A Resistance Thermometer for Engine Compression Temperatures

Fine-wire resistance thermometers were used to measure compression gas temperatures in a motoring (nonfiring) cycle CFR engine. Temperature versus crankangle curves were obtained for the compression and expansion strokes by means of tungsten wires ranging in diameter from 0.15–1.00 mils and at speeds from 600–1800 rpm. The results were compared with the infrared pyrometer; the peak temperature and peak crankangle lags were determined as a function of the wire diameter and engine speed. Attempts to evaluate the instantaneous energy balance around the wire resulted in a negative heat transfer coefficient, for which no current satisfactory explanation is available, although other observers have reported similar phenomena. The tungsten resistance thermometer is simple to build, easy to install, and requires no modification of the engine block for use during motoring. Thus, it is suitable for comparing the compression temperatures of different design engines.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air

Single droplet theory is used to simulate the behavior of fuel sprays in high-speed open-chamber diesels. A model for sprays in still air is presented which includes the air motion induced by the spray. Calculated paths and vaporization histories for droplets injected into swirling air are also presented. It is shown that the paths of vaporizing drops are closely approximated by solid sphere calculations. The effects of swirl speed, engine rpm, and squish air motion are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Methane and Air, and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

This is a continuation of the presentation of thermodynamic properties of selected fuel-air mixtures in chart form, suitable for utilization in engine performance calculations. Methane and propane, representative of natural gas and LPG are the two fuels considered. Using these charts, comparisons are made between the performance to be expected with these gaseous fuels compared to octane, as representative of gasoline. Reduced engine power is predicted and this is confirmed by experience of other investigators.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Technical Paper

UV Absorbance Histories and Knock in a Spark Ignited Engine

Monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, temperature, and pressure histories of unburned gas in a single cylinder CFR engine under motored, fired, and autoignition conditions were recorded on a multichannel magnetic tape recorder. Isooctane, cyclohexane, ethane, n-hexane, n-heptane, 75 octane number (ON), 50 ON, and 25 ON blends of primary reference fuels (PRF) were studied. Under knocking or autoignition conditions a critical absorbance at 2600 A was found, whose magnitude was independent of engine operating variables and dependent only on the knock resistance of the fuel. This absorbance increased rapidly when a certain temperature level was exceeded during the exothermic preflame reactions.
Technical Paper

The Preknock Kinetics of Ethane in a Spark Ignition Engine

This paper tells how a model describing the chemical reactions occurring in the fuel-air mixture prior to the arrival of flame in an engine was constructed and the energy equation, including the rates of reaction as predicted by this model, integrated over the fuel-air mixture history. The kinetic model predicted sudden oxidation of the fuel in times of the order of magnitude of knock experimentally observed using ethane in a CFR engine.