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Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1266
The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3609
Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

2001-09-24
2001-01-3612
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection-Gasoline Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0419
The causes of Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from a premixed compression ignited engine were investigated for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions. A fast response Flame Ionization Detector (fast FID) was used to provide cycle-resolved UHC exhaust emission measurements. These fast FID UHC measurements were coupled with numerical flow simulation results to provide quantitative and qualitative insight into the sources of UHC emissions. The combined results were used to evaluate the effects of engine load, local gas temperatures, fuel stratification, and crevice quenching on UHC emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-0418
A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1068
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1063
Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Development of a 3D Numerical Model for Predicting Spray, Urea Decomposition and Mixing in SCR Systems

2007-10-29
2007-01-3985
In a typical automotive SCR system, the urea-water solution is injected into the exhaust gas stream and breaks up into small droplets through the atomization process due to the interaction with the exhaust gas flow. The water vapor is released by vaporization and leaves the urea component in the droplets. The urea component is converted to ammonia and iso-cyanic acid and other species through thermal decomposition and hydrolysis processes. A multi-dimensional CFD model is developed in the present study to simulate injection and mixing in the automotive SCR systems. The urea-water solution is modeled as a bi-component liquid mixture with evaporation laws for each component. A Lagrangian method with spray sub-models is used to track the liquid droplets and the atomization process. The thermal decomposition and hydrolysis processes of the urea and iso-cyanic acid are simulated by simplified two-step reaction mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Initial Estimation of the Piston Ring Pack Contribution to Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4014
The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

2002-10-21
2002-01-2869
A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Facilitated SCR of NOx in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3570
This paper describes two independent studies on γ-alumina as a plasma-activated catalyst. γ-alumina (2.5 - 4.3 wt%) was coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica to determine the importance of aluminum surface coordination on NOx conversion in conjunction with nonthermal plasma. Results indicate that the presence of 5- and 6- fold aluminum coordination sites in γ-alumina could be a significant factor in the NOx reduction process. A second study examined the effect of changing the reducing agent on NOx conversion. Several hydrocarbons were examined including propene, propane, isooctane, methanol, and acetaldehyde. It is demonstrated that methanol was the most effective reducing agent of those tested for a plasma-facilitated reaction over γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck

2000-09-11
2000-01-2647
In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,000 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear; including injector, valve and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl ester) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections and Flexible Control of Boost and EGR on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0195
A study of the combined use of split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting was conducted. Statistical optimization of the engine operating parameters was accomplished using a new response surface method. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the emissions and fuel consumption capabilities of a state-of-the-art heavy -duty diesel engine when using split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. Similarly, boost has been shown to be an important parameter to optimize. During the experiments, an instrumented single-cylinder heavy -duty diesel engine was used.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Platinum and Cerium from Use of a FBC

2006-04-03
2006-01-1517
Fuel-borne catalysts (FBC) have demonstrated efficacy as an important strategy for integrated diesel emission control. The research summarized herein provides new methodologies for the characterization of engine-out speciated emissions. These analytical tools provide new insights on the mode of action and chemical forms of metal emissions arising from use of a platinum and cerium based commercial FBC, both with and without a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Characterization efforts addressed metal solubility (water, methanol and dichloromethane) and particle size and charge of the target species in the water and solvent extracts. Platinum and cerium species were quantified using state-of-the-art high resolution plasma mass spectrometry. Liquid-chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry techniques were developed to quantify potential parent Pt-FBC in the PM extracts. Speciation was examined for emissions from cold and warm engine cycles collected from an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Integration of Hybrid-Electric Strategy to Enhance Clean Snowmobile Performance

2006-11-13
2006-32-0048
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team designed and constructed a hybrid-electric snowmobile for the 2005 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 784 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine in parallel with a 48 V electric golf cart motor. The 12 kg electric motor increases powertrain torque up to 25% during acceleration and recharges the snowmobile's battery pack during steady-state operation. Air pollution from the gasoline engine is reduced to levels far below current best available technology in the snowmobile industry. The four-stroke engine's closed-loop EFI system maintains stoichiometric combustion while dual three-way catalysts reduce NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 94% from stock. In addition to the use of three way catalysts, the fuel injection strategy has been modified to further reduce engine emissions from the levels measured in the CSC 2004 competition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Property Changes on Heavy-Duty HCCI Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0191
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency with a substantial reduction in emissions. However, achieving heavy-duty (HD) HCCI engine operation at practical loads and speeds presents numerous technical challenges. Successful expansion of the HCCI operating range to include the full range of load and speed must be accomplished while maintaining proper combustion phasing, control of maximum cylinder pressure and pressure rise rates, and low emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Significant progress in this endeavour has been made through a collaborative research effort between Caterpillar and ExxonMobil. This paper evaluates fuel effects on HCCI engine operating range and emissions. Test fuels were developed in the gasoline and diesel boiling range covering a broad range of ignition quality, fuel chemistry, and volatility.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0201
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.
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