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Technical Paper

Government-Industry Partnerships and Environmental and Safety Solutions

2000-04-02
2000-01-1593
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1706
Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

1983-02-01
830221
A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
Technical Paper

Pressurized and Atmospheric Pressure Gasoline-Fueled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell System Performance

1999-08-02
1999-01-2574
The operating pressure is one of the critical issues in designing a gasoline-fueled PEM fuel cell system for transportation applications. Pressurized (3atm) and atmospheric pressure (1atm) fuel cell systems are being considered by various developers for automotive applications. Systems analyses have been performed for the two systems using GCtool, a computer simulation code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two systems were designed for comparable overall system efficiencies at a rated design power of 50 kW. The characteristics and performance of the different components of the two systems were compared at the design power and at part-load operating conditions. Transient analyses were performed to investigate the dynamic response of the two systems during cold startup. The pros and cons of the two systems regarding their performance, size, and preliminary cost estimates are presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Life Cycle Costs for Electric Vans with Advanced Battery Systems

1989-02-01
890819
The performance of advanced Zn/Br2, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.
Technical Paper

Safety Considerations for Sodium-Sulfur Batteries for Electric Vehicles

1989-08-01
891693
Safety issues and current transport (shipment and b-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating potential hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

CALVIN: Winner of the Fourth Annual Unmanned Ground Vehicle Design Competition

1997-02-24
970174
The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Competition is jointly sponsored by the SAE, the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS), and Oakland University. College teams, composed of both undergraduate and graduate students, build autonomous vehicles that compete by navigating a 139 meter outdoor obstacle course. The course, which includes a sand pit and a ramp, is defined by painted continuous or dashed boundary lines on grass and pavement. The obstacles are arbitrarily placed, multi-colored plastic-wrapped hay bales. The vehicles must be between 0.9 and 2.7 meters long and less than 1.5 meters wide. They must be either electric-motor or combustion-engine driven and must carry a 9 kilogram payload. All computational power, sensing and control equipment must be carried on board the vehicle. The technologies employed are applicable in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
Technical Paper

Design of an All-Revolute, Linkage-Type, Constant-Velocity Coupling

1995-09-01
952133
This paper describes a design methodology for a three degree-of-freedom, linkage-based constant-velocity coupling. This coupling resembles the Clemens coupling patented in 1872 and has evolved from the authors' previous research in parallel mechanisms. This coupling contains only revolute joints and is therefore likely to be more durable and less prone to manufacturing errors than conventional higher-pair couplings. The kinematic configuration, based on the symmetric double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss mechanism (figure 2), has many inherent traits that make it ideal for application to industrial uses. Its parallel design of simple links and revolute joints provide it with high strength, rigidity, and light-weight characteristics. It has a link-joint construction that allows its geometry to be varied for specific applications, such as producing high angular deflection between the input and output shafts.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Long Term Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Vehicle Weight and Cost Breakdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1174
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Bench Testing of a GM 5.3L V8 Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1259
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently modeling and bench testing powertrain components for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The custom powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. The engine, a General Motors (GM) L83 5.3L V8 with Active Fuel Management (AFM) from a 2014 Silverado, is of particular importance for vehicle integration and functionality. The engine is one of two torque producing components in the powertrain. AFM allows the engine to deactivate four of the eight cylinders which is essential to meet competition goals to reduce petroleum energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In-vehicle testing is performed with a 2014 Silverado on a closed course to understand the criteria to activate AFM. Parameters required for AFM activation are monitored by recording vehicle CAN bus traffic.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Technical Paper

Impact of Effective Compression Ratio on Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1796
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

2017-09-19
2017-01-2047
Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. Despite an extensive prior literature on the subject, prediction of error sources from convection, conduction and radiation is still an area of great concern. For hot-flow conditions, the probe is normally mounted in a cooled support, leading to substantial axial conduction along the length of the probe. Also, radiation plays a very important role in most hot, high-speed conditions. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. So, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper.
Journal Article

Admissible Shape Parameters for a Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

2017-08-17
2017-01-9683
Computationally efficient tire models are needed to meet the timing and accuracy demands of the iterative vehicle design process. Axisymmetric, circumferentially isotropic, planar, discretized models defined by their quasi-static constraint modes have been proposed that are parameterized by a single stiffness parameter and two shape parameters. These models predict the deformed shape independently from the overall tire stiffness and the forces acting on the tire, but the parameterization of these models is not well defined. This work develops an admissible domain of the shape parameters based on the deformation limitations of a physical tire, such that the tire stiffness properties cannot be negative, the deformed shape of the tire under quasi-static loading cannot be dominated by a single harmonic, and the low spatial frequency components must contribute more than higher frequency components to the overall tire shape.
Technical Paper

Determining Off-cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

2018-04-03
2018-01-1368
This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0848
The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

2018-04-03
2018-01-0420
Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Limited Combustion of Alcohol Fuels in a Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0552
Diesel-fueled, heavy-duty engines are critical to global economies, but unfortunately they are currently coupled to the rising price and challenging emissions of Diesel fuel. Public awareness and increasingly stringent emissions standards have made Diesel OEMs consider possible alternatives to Diesel, including electrification, fuel cells, and spark ignition. While these technologies will likely find success in certain market segments, there are still many applications that will continue to require the performance and liquid-fueled simplicity of Diesel-style engines. Three-way catalysis represents a possible low-cost and highly-effective pathway to reducing Diesel emissions, but that aftertreatment system has typically been incompatible with Diesel operation due to the prohibitively high levels of soot formation at the required stoichiometric fuel-air ratios. This paper explores a possible method of integrating three-way catalysis with Diesel-style engine operation.
Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
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