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Technical Paper

Key Aspects of Electronics Automotive Components Testing

2013-10-07
2013-36-0569
Electronics components are estimated to be between 9 to 15 % of a total vehicle cost, and this trend will remain strong for the next years. The amount of electronics content in a vehicle has grown steadily since 1970's, and as a result, development challenges such as testing and validation are a key aspect of its overall development costs. Testing costs can amount easily to US$ 500 k in medium complex automotive parts of a vehicle (e.g. instrument cluster) depending on a specific OEM customer demand, and this on top of limited regional laboratory capacity can also lead to increased testing time. The goal of this paper is to outline key aspects of electronics in vehicle components testing, including overall costs and timing, and propose a lean approach to optimize such costs & timing. The key aspects of such optimization include not only resources, but also laboratories and upfront OEM customer planning.
Technical Paper

Statistical Identification and Analysis of Vehicle Noise Transfer Paths

2005-05-16
2005-01-2511
Identification of vibration transfer paths is critical to proper isolation of vibration excitations from becoming objectionable noise in a vehicle. Traditional transfer path methods involve comparing vibration inputs to the outputs of each joint. This method can be time consuming and inefficient due to a complexity of paths. A new statistical method was developed to improve the efficiency of testing. This method requires the measurement of the excitation vibration input at each joint of the source component and response sound measurements in the vehicle. Identification of transfer paths using regression analysis will determine the trouble paths to scrutinize.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Lean Principles in Supply Chain Management for the Automotive Aftermarket

2009-04-20
2009-01-0263
The automotive aftermarket represents a challenge for supply chain management when compared to traditional practices in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supply chain. This paper presents a case study for a Tier One automotive supplier’s challenges with inventory carrying costs, backorder risk, and supplier relationships for a rear seat entertainment system in the automotive aftermarket. It will also address the lean principles used to improve the business and increase material planning analyst productivity. A call for OEMs to examine their business practices is also included.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

CAE Considerations in the Modeling of Welded Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0512
Welding is one of the most commonly used fabrication method in various automotive applications. Welding is a metallurgical fusion process in which parts or work pieces to be joined are heated above their melting temperature and then solidified. Some of the effects of the welding include residual stresses and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). A methodology is proposed to study the welding process using the commercial finite element software, ABAQUS. Non linear transient heat transfer analysis is used. Effects of heat energy input rate and heat input time on residual stresses and HAZ are determined.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Acoustic Entertainment

2004-10-18
2004-21-0003
Three dimensional acoustic entertainment enables the listener to experience sounds emanating from all around them, rather than being limited to the space between a pair of stereo speakers. It provides the artist with an enhanced sonic pallet to place sound sources in three dimensional space, as well as potential for a more realistic music reproduction experience. With the popularity of the Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), the technology successfully migrated from the movie theater into the “home theater”. The multichannel replacements for the audio CD (DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD) are enhancing the advancement into the automotive space. Automotive interiors are readymade for multichannel reproduction, but the automotive environment offers some challenges as well. This paper will discuss the market and technical potential for automotive applications of three dimensional sound, matters to take into account, media choices, distribution considerations and a look toward the future.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Cylindrical HVAC Case

2004-03-08
2004-01-1385
There are many opportunities in a current automotive HVAC case for improved performance, and cost savings. Based on these opportunities, a new HVAC case design has been developed. This new design is smaller and lighter than current cases while meeting many of the performance requirements. The case also features a unique plenum design for air distribution to the three modes, panel, floor, and defrost. The results of simulation and laboratory testing confirmed the concept of the new HVAC design.
Technical Paper

GENPAD® - Ergonomic Packaging

2002-03-04
2002-01-1241
GENPAD® is a knowledge-based, three-dimensional modeling computer tool developed by Visteon to create occupant-friendly interiors. GENPAD quickly and easily produces zones to evaluate ergonomic aspects of vehicle interiors such as reach, clearance, vision, and reflection. These zones are produced from automated design studies based on experience and engineering standards accepted by the automotive industry. Without GENPAD, a single study requires an experienced engineer 4-6 hours to complete. Multiple studies require several engineers weeks to perform. The methods used are also error-prone due to complex instructions. To overcome these challenges, GENPAD provides over 50 ergonomic packaging studies that produce accurate results in minutes, not weeks, every time.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Light Weight Al Spindle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0676
The demand for improved vehicle fuel economy drives the auto engineers to look for opportunities in weight reduction of automotive systems and components. This paper presents inventions on the design and development of a lightweight spindle. In this new product, the spindle body is made from an Al alloy for a substantial weight reduction in comparison to the tradition iron spindle body. The shaft of the spindle is made from high strength steel to meet strength requirements. The design shows the unique feature of the joining area between the spindle body and shaft. The related joining process is applied to produce a strong joint between the two parts made of different materials. The testing results will be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Robustness Considerations in the Design of a Stabilizer Bar System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1718
Modern automobiles utilize stabilizer bars to increase vehicle roll stiffness. Stabilizer bars are laterally mounted torsional springs which resist vertical displacement of the wheels relative to one another. A stabilizer bar is constructed in such a way that it will meet package constraints and fatigue requirements. In order to design a robust stabilizer bar, Taguchi's “Design of Experiment method” is used. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust stabilizer bar design that will maximize the fatigue life and the roll stiffness while minimizing weight. This study is based on results obtained by CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Post Brazed Flux Residues of CAB Evaporators on the Consistency of Conversion Coating

2005-04-11
2005-01-1773
Evaporators for automotive air-conditioning systems are being coated externally to improve corrosion resistance, water drainage, and reduce potential odor concerns. The coating durability and efficiency in achieving its corrosion resistance depends on the coating uniformity and adhesion characteristics. Good coating adhesion on aluminum surface can be achieved after freeing the surface from the oxide and flux residues. Evaporators manufactured by the Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB) process have flux residue remaining on the surface, the presence of which interferes with the coating process and also affects the performance of coated components. A methodology to quantify the effect of high Nocolok flux residue on heat exchanger coating uniformity has been presented.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1431
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
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