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Book

Automotive Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2002-05-15
This book covers the latest global technical initiatives in the rapidly progressing area of gasoline direct injection (GDI), spark-ignited gasoline engines and examines the contribution of each process and sub-system to the efficiency of the overall system. Including discussions, data, and figures from many technical papers and proceedings that are not available in the English language, Automotive Gasoline Direct Injection Systems will prove to be an invaluable desk reference for any GDI subject or direct-injection subsystem that is being developed worldwide.
Book

Disc Brake Squeal

2005-12-13
Chapters written by professional and academic experts in the field cover: analytical modeling and analysis, CEA modeling and numerical methods, techniques for dynamometer and road test evaluation, critical parameters that contribute to brake squeal, robust design processes to reduce/prevent brake squeal via up-front design, and more.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC19
Previous studies have hypothesized that the shoulder may be used to absorb some impact energy and reduce chest injury due to side impacts. Before this hypothesis can be tested, a good understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder is critical for occupant protection in side impact. However, existing crash dummies and numerical models are not designed to reproduce the kinematics and kinetics of the human shoulder. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder in side impact. Basic anthropometric data of the human shoulder used to develop the skeletal and muscular portions of this model were taken from commercial data packages. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder.
Technical Paper

Kinematics of Human Cadaver Cervical Spine During Low Speed Rear-End Impacts

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC13
The purposes of this study were to measure the relative linear and angular displacements of each pair of adjacent cervical vertebrae and to compute changes in distance between two adjacent facet joint landmarks during low posterior- anterior (+Gx) acceleration without significant hyperextension of the head. A total of twenty-six low speed rear-end impacts were conducted using six postmortem human specimens. Each cadaver was instrumented with two to three neck targets embedded in each cervical vertebra and nine accelerometers on the head. Sequential x-ray images were collected and analyzed. Two seatback orientations were studied. In the global coordinate system, the head, the cervical vertebrae, and the first or second thoracic vertebra (T1 or T2) were in extension during rear-end impacts. The head showed less extension in comparison with the cervical spine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Instantaneous Frictional Torque in Multicylinder Engines

1996-10-01
962006
An experimental method for determining the Instantaneous Frictional Torque (IFT) using pressure transducers on every cylinder and speed measurements at both ends of the crankshaft is presented. The speed variation measured at one end of the crankshaft is distorted by torsional vibrations making it difficult to establish a simple and direct correlation between the acting torque and measured speed. Using a lumped mass model of the crankshaft and modal analysis techniques, the contributions of the different natural modes to the motion along the crankshaft axis are determined. Based on this model a method was devised to combine speed measurements made at both ends of the crankshaft in such a way as to eliminate the influence of torsional vibrations and obtain the equivalent rigid body motion of the crankshaft. This motion, the loading torque and the gas pressure torque are utilized to determine the IFT.
Technical Paper

Development of a Sled-to-Sled Subsystem Side Impact Test Methodology

1997-02-24
970569
A sled-to-sled subsystem side impact test methodology has been developed by using two sleds at the WSU Bioengineering Center in order to simulate a car-to-car side impact, particularly in regards to the door velocity profile. Initially this study concentrated on tailoring door pulse to match the inner door velocity profile from FMVSS 214 full-scale dynamic side impact tests. This test device simulates a pulse quite similar to a typical door velocity of a full size car in a dynamic side impact test. Using the newly developed side impact test device three runs with a SID dummy were performed to study the effects of door padding and spacing in a real side impact situation. This paper describes the test methodology to simulate door intrusion velocity profiles in side impact and discusses SID dummy test results for different padding conditions.
Technical Paper

On the Role of Cervical Facet Joints in Rear End Impact Neck Injury Mechanisms

1997-02-24
970497
After a rear end impact, various clinical symptoms are often seen in car occupants (e.g. neck stiffness, strain, headache). Although many different injury mechanisms of the cervical spine have been identified thus far, the extent to which a single mechanism of injury is responsible remains uncertain. Apart from hyperextension or excessive shearing, a compression of the cervical spine can also be seen in the first phase of the impact due to ramping or other mechanical interactions between the seat back and the spine. It is hypothesized that this axial compression, together with the shear force, are responsible for the higher observed frequency of neck injuries in rear end impacts versus frontal impacts of comparable severity. The axial compression first causes loosening of cervical ligaments making it easier for shear type soft tissue injuries to occur.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Vibration and Noise in Automotive Timing Chain Drives

1997-02-24
970501
Vibration and noise are generally considered to be the major problems in power transmission chains. This paper presents an adaptive, active control strategy for the reduction of vibration in automotive timing chain drives and examines the effects of the active control on noise reduction. Experimental results show that the average vibration amplitude is diminished by as much as 90% under low to moderate tension conditions, and the chain noise is reduced by about 3 dB. The experimental apparatus has low cost and is readily applicable to an industrial environment.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
971014
An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Noise Radiation from Axial Flow Fans

1997-05-20
971919
A semi-empirical formula [1] for predicting noise spectra of an engine cooling fan assembly is developed. In deriving this formulation it is assumed that sound radiation from an axial flow fan is primarily due to fluctuating forces exerted on the fan blade surface. These fluctuating forces are correlated to the total lift force exerted on the fan blade, and is approximated by pressure pulses that decay both in space and time. The radiated acoustic pressure is then expressed in terms of superposition of contributions from these pressure pulses, and the corresponding line spectrum is obtained by taking a Fourier series expansion. To simulate the broad band sounds, a normal distribution-like shape function is designed which divides the frequency into consecutive bands centered at the blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of this shape function at the center frequency is unity but decays exponentially. The decay rate decreases with an increase in the number of bands.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow and Pressure Characteristics Inside a Closed-Coupled Catalytic Converter

1998-10-19
982548
An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Mechanisms and Biomechanical Responses in Lateral Velocity Pulse Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC04
The purpose of this study is to help understand the thoracic response and injury mechanisms in high-energy, limited-stroke, lateral velocity pulse impacts to the human chest wall. To impart such impacts, a linear impactor was developed which had a limited stroke and minimally decreased velocity during impact. The peak impact velocity was 5.6 ± 0.3 m/s. A series of BioSID and cadaver tests were conducted to measure biomechanical response and injury data. The conflicting effects of padding on increased deflection and decreased acceleration were demonstrated in tests with BioSID and cadavers. The results of tests conducted on six cadavers were used to test several proposed injury criteria for side impact. Linear regression was used to correlate each injury criterion to the number of rib fractures. This test methodology captured and supported a contrasting trend of increased chest deflection and decreased TTI when padding was introduced.
Technical Paper

Bending Strength of the Human Cadaveric Forearm Due to Lateral Loads

1999-10-10
99SC24
Ten pairs of thawed fresh-frozen human cadaveric lower arm specimens were subjected to lateral three-point bending. Either the radius or ulna were impacted with a 4.5 kg dropped weight at approximately 3 m/s or tested quasi-statically in a materials testing machine. Fracture occurred primarily near the loading site with an average dynamic peak load of 1370 N and average peak moment of 89 Nm. Differences between the radius and ulna were not significant. Static fracture load and moments were approximately 20% lower. Sectional and mineral properties of each specimen near the fracture sites were measured.
Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using Ct-Scan Data

1999-10-10
99SC11
Although not life threatening in most cases, victims of lower extremity injuries frequently end up living with a poor quality of life. The implementations of airbag supplement restraint systems significantly reduce the incidence of head and chest injuries. However, the frequency of leg injuries remains high. Several finite element models of the foot and ankle have been developed to further the understanding of this injury mechanism. None of those models employed accurate geometry among various bony segments. The objective of this study is to develop a foot and ankle finite element model based on CT scan data so that joint geometry can be accurately represented. The model was validated against experimental data for several different configurations including typical car crash situations.
Technical Paper

High Rate Mechanical Properties of the Hybrid Iii and Cadaveric Lumbar Spines in Flexion and Extension

1999-10-10
99SC18
In a previous study by Demetropoules et al., (1998), it was shown that both cadaveric and Hybrid III lumbar spines exhibit loading rate dependency when loaded in a quasi-static mode up to a velocity of 100 mm/s. In these tests, the Hybrid III lumbar spines were generally found to have higher stiffnesses than the human lumbar spines, except in compression. This is probably due to the fact that muscle loading was not simulated when testing the human spines. Additionally, the speed previously used to test the spines was less than that typically seen in automotive crash environment. The purpose of this study was to use a high-rate testing machine to establish the flexion and extension stiffnesses of the human lumbar spine with simulated extensor muscle tone. Two Hybrid III lumbar spines were used to develop the test methodology and to obtain the response of the Hybrid III lumbar spines.
Technical Paper

Brain/Skull Relative Displacement Magnitude Due to Blunt Head Impact: New Experimental Data and Model

1999-10-10
99SC22
Relative motion between the brain and skull may explain many types of brain injury such as intracerebral hematomas due to bridging veins rupture [1] and cerebral contusions. However, no experimental methods have been developed to measure the magnitude of this motion. Consequently, relative motion between the brain and skull predicted by analytical tools has never been validated. In this study, radio opaque markers were placed in the skull and neutral density markers were placed in the brain in two vertical columns in the occipitoparietal and temporoparietal regions. A bi-planar, high-speed x-ray system was used to track the motion of these markers. Due to limitations in current technology to record the x-ray image on high-speed video cameras, only low- speed (﹤ 4m/s) impact data were available.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Cadaveric and Hybrid III Lumbar Spines

1998-11-02
983160
This study identified the mechanical properties of ten cadaveric lumbar spines and two Hybrid III lumbar spines. Eight tests were performed on each specimen: tension, compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, left lateral shear, flexion, extension and left lateral bending. Each test was run at a displacement rate of 100 mm/sec. The maximum displacements were selected to approximate the loading range of a 50 km/h Hybrid III dummy sled test and to be non-destructive to the specimens. Load, linear displacement and angular displacement data were collected. Bending moment was calculated from force data. Each mode of loading demonstrated consistent characteristics. The load-displacement curves of the Hybrid III lumbar spine demonstrated an initial region of high stiffness followed by a region of constant stiffness.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines

1995-10-01
952366
An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Flow Structure Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Gasoline Engine

1995-02-01
950784
The flow structure inside the catalytic converter of gasoline engines is very important for consideration of the catalyst light-off condition, converter durability and conversion efficiency. However, the available experimental data under actual engine exhaust conditions are quite limited due to its complicated configuration, critical operating conditions and difficult optical access. Therefore, an experimental study was performed, using laser Doppler velocimetry technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside two production dual-monolith catalytic converters fitted on a firing gasoline engine over several engine operating conditions. This paper reports the normal velocity characteristics measured in a plane 1 mm away from the front surface of first monolith. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline for generating titanium dioxide seeding particles during the engine combustion.
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