Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

GDi Nozzle Parameter Studies Using LES and Spray Imaging Methods

2014-04-01
2014-01-1434
Development of in-cylinder spray targeting, plume penetration and atomization of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi) multi-hole injector is a critical component of combustion developments, especially in the context of the engine downsizing and turbo-charging trend that has been adopted in order to achieve the European target CO2, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards the optimization of injector nozzle designs in order to improve spray characteristics. Development of accurate predictive models is desired to understand the impact of nozzle design parameters as well as the underlying physical fluid dynamic mechanisms resulting in the injector spray characteristics. This publication reports Large Eddy Simulation (LES) analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries.
Journal Article

Deterioration of B20 from Compression Ignition Engine Operation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2120
Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.
Journal Article

Ethanol/N-Heptane Dual-Fuel Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis through Formaldehyde PLIF

2012-04-16
2012-01-0685
As a result of recent focus on the control of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) modes, dual-fuel combustion strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) have been developed. Reactivity stratification of the auto-igniting mixture is thought to be responsible for the increase in allowable engine load compared to other LTC combustion modes such as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The current study investigates the effect of ethanol intake fuel injection on in-cylinder formaldehyde formation and stratification within an optically accessible engine operated with n-heptane direct injection using optical measurements and zero-dimensional chemical kinetic models. Images obtained by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde using the third harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser indicate an increase in formaldehyde heterogeneity as measured by the fluorescence signal standard deviation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0076
The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Journal Article

Effect of Swirl Ratio and Wall Temperature on Pre-lnjection Chemiluminescence During Starting of an Optical Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2712
Fuel wall impingement commonly occurs in small-bore diesel engines. Particularly during engine starting, when wall temperatures are low, the evaporation rate of fuel film remaining from previous cycles plays a significant role in the autoignition process that is not fully understood. Pre-injection chemiluminescence (PIC), resulting from low-temperature oxidation of evaporating fuel film and residual gases, was measured over 3200 μsec intervals at the end of the compression strokes, but prior to fuel injection during a series of starting sequences in an optical diesel engine. These experiments were conducted to determine the effect of this parameter on combustion phasing and were conducted at initial engine temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60°C, at swirl ratios of 2.0 and 4.5 at 1000 RPM. PIC was determined to increase and be highly correlated with combustion phasing during initial cycles of the starting sequence.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Cold-Start Control Strategy for a Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel System at Different Ambient Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-0933
A new tool has been used to arrive at appropriate split injection strategy for reducing the cranking period during the cold start of a multi-cylinder engine at decreasing ambient temperatures. The concept behind this tool is that the combination of different injection parameters that produce the highest IMEP should be able to improve the cold startability of the diesel engine. In this work the following injection parameters were considered: 1) injection timing, 2) split injection fraction, 3) dwell time and 4) total fuel mass injected per cycle. A commercial engine cyclic simulation code has been modified for diesel engine cycle simulation at lower ambient temperatures. The code was used to develop IMEP control maps. The maps were used to identify the parameters that would give the best IMEP. The strategies that have been identified have been validated experimentally in a multi-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Lower Temperature Limits for Cold Starting of Diesel Engine with a Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0934
One of the most challenging problems in diesel engines is to reduce unburned HC emissions that appear as (white smoke) during cold starting. In this paper the research is carried out on a 4-cylinder diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system, which is able to deliver multiple injections during cold start. The causes of combustion failure at lower temperature limits are investigated theoretically by considering the rate of heat release. The results of this clearly indicate that in addition to low cranking engine speed, heat transfer and blow-by losses at lower ambient temperatures, fuel injection events would contribute to the failure of combustion. Also, combustion failure takes place when the compression temperature is lower than some critical value. Based on these results, split-main injection strategy was applied during engine cold starting and validated by experiments in a cold room at lower ambient temperatures.
Journal Article

Characterization of Diesel Common Rail Spray Behavior for Single- and Double-hole Nozzles

2008-10-06
2008-01-2424
Double-hole nozzle and multiple injections have the potential for better fuel atomization and mixing in DI engine. In order to evaluate the behavior of the spray for the double-hole nozzles against traditional single-hole ones, high-speed spray visualization was carried out using a streak film camera and a copper vapor laser, and in combination with a long-distance camera when taking microscopic movies. The spray penetration and the cone angle were measured based on the images and compared for variable injection pressures, and for single and split injections, under ambient and elevated chamber pressure conditions. The results showed that the spray of the double-hole nozzle has comparable penetration but smaller cone angle when viewed from the nozzle end, compared to the single-hole nozzle with the same total hole discharge cross-sectional area. For microscopic view, it was observed that the interaction between the dual sprays is very dynamic.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1071
This paper presents an experimental investigation conducted to determine the parameters that control the behavior of autoignition in a small-bore, single-cylinder, optically-accessible diesel engine. Depending on operating conditions, three types of autoignition are observed: a single ignition, a two-stage process where a low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame precedes the main premixed combustion, and a two-stage process where the LTHR or cool flame is separated from the main heat release by an apparent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Experiments were conducted using commercial grade low-sulfur diesel fuel with a common-rail injection system. An intensified CCD camera was used for ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of chemiluminescent autoignition reactions under various operating conditions including fuel injection pressures, engine temperatures and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Optical and Numerical Investigation of Pre-Injection Reactions and Their Effect on the Starting of a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0648
Ultraviolet chemiluminescence has been observed in a diesel engine cyclinder during compression, but prior to fuel injection under engine starting conditions. During a portion of the warm-up sequence, the intensity of this emission exhibits a strong correlation to the phasing of the subsequent combustion. Engine exhaust measurements taken from a continuously misfiring, motored engine confirm the generation of formaldehyde (HCHO) in such processes. Fractions of this compound are expected to be recycled as residual to participate in the following combustion cycle. Spectral measurements taken during the compression period prior to fuel injection match the features of Emeleus' cool flame HCHO bands that have been observed during low temperature heat release reactions occurring in lean HCCI combustion. That the signal from the OH* bands is weak implies a buildup of HCHO during compression.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Biodiesel Blends on Autoignition, Combustion, Performance and Engine-Out Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0489
The effects of different blends of Soybean Methyl Ester (biodiesel) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel: B-00 (ULSD), B-20, B-40, B-60, B-80 and B-100 (biodiesel); on autoignition, combustion, performance, and engine out emissions of different species including particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm under simulated turbocharged conditions at 5 bar IMEP load with varied injection pressures at a medium swirl of 3.77 w ithout EGR. Analysis of test results was done to determine the role of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend on the basic thermodynamic and combustion processes under fuel injection pressures ranging from 600 bar to 1200 bar.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

1998-10-19
982702
Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Development Process of Shock Waves by Supersonic Spray

2004-03-08
2004-01-1769
A numerical simulation of shock wave generation by high-pressure and high-speed spray jet has been conducted to compare to the experimental results obtained by X-ray radiographic technique. Using the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method and the stochastic particle techniques to account for fuel injections and droplet collisions, supersonic-spray-induced shock waves are successfully simulated. Similar to the experimental condition, a non-evaporating diesel spray in a chamber filled with inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at 1 atm pressure under room temperature (30° C) is simulated. To simulate the needle lift effect in the single-hole diesel injector, various injection-rate profiles were employed. In addition, the effects of discharge coefficients, with Cd ranging from 0.8 to 1.0, were also considered to simulate the shock generation processes in the leading spray front.
Technical Paper

A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

1997-02-24
970627
The current extensive revisitation of the application of gasoline direct-injection to automotive, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines has been prompted by the availability of technological capabilities that did not exist in the late 1970s, and that can now be utilized in the engine development process. The availability of new engine hardware that permits an enhanced level of computer control and dynamic optimization has alleviated many of the system limitations that were encountered in the time period from 1976 to 1984, when the capabilities of direct-injection, stratified-charge, spark-ignition engines were thoroughly researched. This paper incorporates a critical review of the current worldwide research and development activities in the gasoline direct-injection field, and provides insight into new areas of technology that are being applied to the development of both production and prototype engines.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle hole Geometry on a HSDI Diesel Engine-Out Emissions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0704
The combustion and emission characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated using two different nozzles, a 430-VCO (0.171mm) and a 320 Mini sac (0.131mm). The experiments were conducted at conditions that represent a key point in the operation of a diesel engine in an electric hybrid vehicle (1500 rpm and light load condition). The experiments covered fuel injection pressures ranging from 400 to 1000 bar and EGR ratios ranging from 0 to 50%. The effects of nozzle hole geometry on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER, ARHR), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated.
Technical Paper

Temperature Impact on Modeling and Control of Lean NOx Trap

2003-03-03
2003-01-1163
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine has a significant fuel economy improvement over the traditional port fuel injection engine. The tradeoff for this benefit is excessive exhaust emissions, especially NOx. Three-way-catalyst (TWC) is inefficient to treat NOx emission during lean operation. So Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is invented for NOx aftertreatment and it has both storage mode and purge mode. Research on modeling and control of LNT has been conducted, but it is still lack of the essential information on the temperature effect. This research focuses on the impact of trap temperature on LNT storage time, purge time and fuel economy. The mechanism of temperature effect on LNT is investigated at first. Then the temperature control strategy based on fuel economy improvement is proposed.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Diesel Engines Cold-Start

2003-03-03
2003-01-0080
Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper

A Simple Linear Approach for Transient Fuel Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0360
Significant A/F ratio excursion may occur during some engine transient operations, especially for transient periods of throttle tip in or tip out. A/F ratio excursion results in excessive emissions, extra fuel consumption, driveability deterioration and three-way-catalyst (TWC) efficiency drop. Simple two-parameter (X, τ) wall wetting models have traditionally been used to describe this transient A/F ratio excursion phenomenon. The transient fuel control techniques are utilized for this model to be applicable across vehicles, engines, fuel types and ambient conditions, so as to compensate for the A/F ratio excursion with the extra compensation fuel. More complicated model structures must be further expanded and model dependence on various environment conditions must be established to achieve a precise model. In this paper, a simple linear approach is proposed for transient fuel control, using least squares estimation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in the Injection Pressure in a Common Rail Diesel Injection System on Engine Performance

2003-03-03
2003-01-0699
The performance of the Common Rail diesel injection system (CRS) is investigated experimentally in a single cylinder engine and a test rig to determine the cycle-to-cycle variation in the injection pressure and its effects on the needle opening and rate of fuel delivery. The engine used is a single cylinder, simulated-turbocharged diesel engine. Data for the different injection and performance parameters are collected under steady state conditions for 35 consecutive cycles. Furthermore, a mathematical model has been developed to calculate the instantaneous fuel delivery rate at various injection pressures. The experimental results supported with the model computations indicated the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations in the fuel injection pressure and needle lift. The variations in the peak-cylinder gas pressure, rate of heat release, cylinder gas temperature and IMEP are correlated with the variation in the injection rate.
X