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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Video

Test Results of Plug-In Vehicles According to SAE Standard Testing Practices

2012-03-27
Over the past several years, new recommended practices for testing plug-in vehicles have been developed by SAE standards committees. At first only proprietary or prototype vehicles were available to validate new procedures. However, with the recent availability of Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf, these test procedures were put to the test in Argonne�s National Laboratory�s dynamometer test facility. Procedures for the Volt were according to the SAE J1711 procedures. The Leaf was tested according to procedures still under development in the SAE J1634 task force. Identified were aspects of the tests that were successful and areas where more development is needed. As described in SAE J2841, the Volt results were analyzed using a �utility factor� to estimate in-use expectations of electric-only miles.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Model for Transient Operation of Turbocharged, Common Rail Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1460
The simulation of I.C. Engines operation, especially during transients, requires a fairly accurate estimation of the internal mechanical losses of the engine. The paper presents generic friction models for the main friction components of the engine (piston-ring-liner assembly, bearings and valve train), considering geometry of the engine parts and peculiarities of the corresponding lubrication processes. Separate models for the mechanical losses introduced by the injection system, oil and water pumps are also developed. All models are implemented as SIMULINK modules in a complex engine simulation code developed in SIMULINK and capable to simulate both steady state and transient operating conditions. Validation is achieved by comparison with measurements made on a four cylinder, common rail diesel engine, on a test bench capable to run controlled transients.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Injection Parameters in a Hydrogen DI Engine Using an Endoscopic Access to the Combustion Chamber

2007-04-16
2007-01-1464
In order to achieve the targets for hydrogen engines set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a brake thermal efficiency of 45% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions below 0.07 g/mi - while maintaining the same power density as comparable gasoline engines, researchers need to investigate advanced mixture formation and combustion strategies for hydrogen internal combustion engines. Hydrogen direct injection is a very promising approach to meeting DOE targets; however, there are several challenges to be overcome in order to establish this technology as a viable pathway toward a sustainable hydrogen infrastructure. This paper describes the use of endoscopic imaging as a diagnostic tool that allows further insight into the processes that occur during hydrogen combustion. It also addresses recent progress in the development of advanced direct-injected hydrogen internal combustion engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Lower Temperature Limits for Cold Starting of Diesel Engine with a Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0934
One of the most challenging problems in diesel engines is to reduce unburned HC emissions that appear as (white smoke) during cold starting. In this paper the research is carried out on a 4-cylinder diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system, which is able to deliver multiple injections during cold start. The causes of combustion failure at lower temperature limits are investigated theoretically by considering the rate of heat release. The results of this clearly indicate that in addition to low cranking engine speed, heat transfer and blow-by losses at lower ambient temperatures, fuel injection events would contribute to the failure of combustion. Also, combustion failure takes place when the compression temperature is lower than some critical value. Based on these results, split-main injection strategy was applied during engine cold starting and validated by experiments in a cold room at lower ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Cold-Start Control Strategy for a Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel System at Different Ambient Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-0933
A new tool has been used to arrive at appropriate split injection strategy for reducing the cranking period during the cold start of a multi-cylinder engine at decreasing ambient temperatures. The concept behind this tool is that the combination of different injection parameters that produce the highest IMEP should be able to improve the cold startability of the diesel engine. In this work the following injection parameters were considered: 1) injection timing, 2) split injection fraction, 3) dwell time and 4) total fuel mass injected per cycle. A commercial engine cyclic simulation code has been modified for diesel engine cycle simulation at lower ambient temperatures. The code was used to develop IMEP control maps. The maps were used to identify the parameters that would give the best IMEP. The strategies that have been identified have been validated experimentally in a multi-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Fuel Consumption Variability of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Due to Aggressive Driving

2009-04-20
2009-01-1335
Previous studies and on-road driving by consumers have shown that Hybrid Electric Vehicle fuel economy is very dependent on driver demand in both vehicle speed and vehicle acceleration [1]. The emerging technology of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) may prove to also be more sensitivity to aggressive driver demand as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. This is due to the exceptional ability of the PHEV to minimize fuel consumption at mid to low power levels by the significant use of electric propulsion which enables engine downsizing. As vehicle speed and acceleration increase so does the power demand on the powertrain. The fuel consumption is directly affected by this increase in power demand level. To examine the fuel consumption impact of changing driver characteristics on PHEV’s, testing is conducted on two vehicles (parallel PHEV and power-split PHEV) on a four wheel chassis dynamometer at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility.
Technical Paper

“Fair” Comparison of Powertrain Configurations for Plug-In Hybrid Operation Using Global Optimization

2009-04-20
2009-01-1334
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use electric energy from the grid rather than fuel energy for most short trips, therefore drastically reducing fuel consumption. Different configurations can be used for PHEVs. In this study, the parallel pre-transmission, series, and power-split configurations were compared by using global optimization. The latter allows a fair comparison among different powertrains. Each vehicle was operated optimally to ensure that the results would not be biased by non-optimally tuned or designed controllers. All vehicles were sized to have a similar all-electric range (AER), performance, and towing capacity. Several driving cycles and distances were used. The advantages of each powertrain are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

Tahoe HEV Model Development in PSAT

2009-04-20
2009-01-1307
Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, lead activities in vehicle dynamometer and fleet testing as well as in modeling activities. By using Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF), the General Motors (GM) Tahoe 2-mode was instrumented and tested in the 4-wheel-drive test facility. Measurements included both sensors and controller area network (CAN) messages. In this paper, we describe the vehicle instrumentation as well as the test results. On the basis of the analysis performed, we discuss the vehicle model developed in Argonne’s vehicle simulation tool, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), and its comparison with test data. Finally, on-road vehicle data, performed by INL, is discussed and compared with the dynamometer results.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved, Three Dimensional Mass Distribution of Diesel Sprays Measured with X-Ray Radiography

2009-04-20
2009-01-0840
Most previous measurements of diesel sprays have yielded few details regarding the near-nozzle structure of the sprays. X-ray radiography measurements have provided quantitative, time-resolved measurements of spray behavior, but the radiography data are projections of the actual fuel distribution. In this study, diesel sprays from two axial, single-hole nozzles are measured using x-ray radiography from several viewing angles. A model-based reconstruction is used to determine the actual density distribution from the projected data. The spray from the hydroground nozzle is eccentric and relatively dense, while the spray from the non-hydroground nozzle is asymmetric and far less dense. Even several mm from the nozzles, the calculated density values are high enough to call into question the assumptions underlying many standard CFD spray models.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Primary Breakup Model for Diesel Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-0838
Fuel injection characteristics, in particular the atomization and penetration of the fuel droplets in the region close to the nozzle orifice, are known to affect emission and particulate formation in Diesel engines. It is also well established that the primary fuel atomization process is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. Typical breakup models in the literature however, do not consider the effects of cavitation and turbulence from nozzle injector. In this paper, a comprehensive primary breakup model incorporating the inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the CONVERGE CFD code. This new primary breakup model is tested in a constant volume spray chamber against various spray data available in the literature.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Spray Behavior of Diesel Injection Systems Using X-Ray Radiography

2009-04-20
2009-01-0846
In Diesel engines, fuel injection plays a critical role in performance, efficiency, and emissions. Altering parameters such as injection quantity, duration, pressure, etc. influences the injector's performance. Changes in the injection system architecture can also affect the spray behavior. Understanding of the flow near the nozzle exit can lead to the establishment of correlation to spray characteristics further downstream, and eventually its combustion behavior in the engine. Because of its high density, the near-nozzle region of the spray is difficult to study using optical techniques. This near-nozzle region of spray from high pressure injectors was studied using the quantitative and time-resolved x-ray radiography technique. This method provides high spatial and temporal resolution without significant scattering effects.
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